Topic: Developing creativity using self-regulated learning techniques among 10th graders



B.Ed. (1.5 Year)

Course Code: 8613

Name … Hikmatullah

Father name..

Roll number…

Registration No: 0000118396

Semester: Autumn 2022

Region; Quetta

Theme: Developing 21 century skills of students

Sub-theme: Creativity

Topic: Developing creativity using self-regulated learning techniques among 10th graders

Developing creativity using self-regulated learning techniques among 10th graders Hikmatullah

District Quetta..Govt Boys High School killi Kulazai ”””School government boys high school Killi masoom khan milat abad chaman.

City name. Chaman

Quetta region.

District chaman.



Overall background of the participants of the project; area / Area: (socio-economic status, occupation / profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the Area is situated).

This action research was conducted in government boys high school Killi masoom khan milat abad chaman.…..

School & Participants Background:

In general the structure of school was huge and lovely. The school had lovely playground and parking. Classes are better in condition. The environment of school was great, better for learning and secure for children. The participants of study were young learner’s (5th class) parents whose children were enrolled in government boys high school Killi masoom khan milat abad chaman.. I selected young learner’s (5th class) parents which are considered in total 32 members.

Socio Economic Status:

Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. Examinations of socioeconomic status often reveal inequities in access to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power and control. Most of peoples from this area are Govt. employee but some of them are shopkeeper or work in private offices. Most of parents do not afford children education due to their family expenses and their low income but some parents support their children at higher level in well reputed universities. But due to the lack of higher educational institute and low income of their parents, more than 60% children stop their education after intermediate. Overall the financial status of this area is good.

Occupation & Earning Trend:

Parents with Govt. jobs and small businessman are in a better condition to help and support their children educationally, mentally and profoundly. However, Parents with low income because of expenses and low salaries issues can’t give satisfactory to up level their children education. The control of the Parents in this research from this area is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so good. The children who Parents with government jobs are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction. Due to low earning trend of this area, the children face a great deal of difficulties both at home and school, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom exercises. In present some parents drop their children at different shop for learning work and for earning but today due to free education in Pakistan more than 80% children go to school till then matriculation.

Literacy Rate:

Quetta is the capital city of the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. According to the latest available data from the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, the literacy rate in Quetta district is 49.2%.

However, it is important to note that the literacy rate can vary depending on the specific area within the district and other demographic factors such as age, gender, and socio-economic status. Additionally, the data may not always be up to date or accurate due to various limitations in data collection and reporting.

Overall, while the literacy rate in Quetta may not be as high as in some other parts of Pakistan, efforts are being made to improve access to education and promote literacy in the region.

Sub-theme: Creativity

Topic: Developing creativity using self-regulated learning techniques among 10th graders

Q.1 Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution.

Reason for select this specific sub-theme

Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.

Creativity allows us to view and solve problems more openly and with innovation. Creativity opens the mind. A society that has lost touch with its creative side is an imprisoned society, in that generations of people may be closed minded. It broadens our perspectives and can help us overcome prejudices.

As stated by the researcher, creativity development is maximum development and improvement of potential skills when providing appropriate conditions and applying special creativity development/self-development techniques.

Reason for select this specific topic

Creativity is a crucial skill that can help individuals to think outside the box and come up with innovative solutions to various problems. In today’s world, where change is constant, creativity is a key skill that is highly sought after by employers and businesses. However, the traditional educational system often emphasizes memorization and rote learning, which can stifle creativity and limit students’ ability to develop this critical skill.

Therefore, it is essential to find ways to foster creativity among students. One approach that has shown promise is self-regulated learning (SRL). SRL is a process by which individuals take control of their own learning through metacognition, motivation, and strategic action. By learning how to regulate their own learning, students can become more self-directed, persistent, and engaged in the learning process, which can ultimately lead to increased creativity.

In this context, the present topic aims to explore the potential of SRL techniques for developing creativity among 10th graders. There are several reasons why this topic is important.

Firstly, 10th grade is a critical year in the educational journey of students. It is a time when students start to think about their future career paths and make important decisions about their academic pursuits. By introducing SRL techniques at this stage, students can develop essential skills that will be valuable throughout their academic and professional lives.

Secondly, the 10th grade is a period when students often experience a decline in motivation and engagement. The traditional educational system can be monotonous, leading to boredom and disengagement. SRL techniques can help to combat this by giving students more autonomy and control over their learning, leading to increased motivation and engagement.

Thirdly, creativity is a crucial skill in the modern workforce. In today’s fast-paced and ever-changing world, businesses and organizations require employees who can think creatively and come up with innovative solutions to complex problems. By developing creativity among students, we can prepare them to be successful in their future careers and contribute positively to society.

In summary, the present topic aims to explore the potential of SRL techniques for developing creativity among 10th graders. By doing so, we can equip students with essential skills that will help them succeed academically and professionally, while also contributing positively to society.

Q.2 What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?

After choosing this theme, I discussed this topic with my teachers, friends and supervisor.

Discussion with Supervisor:

My supervisor pointed out that creativity is essential for everyone, especially children. There are a lot of benefits gained from Responsibility, including that it fosters a positive mood and releases the stress of the day.

Discussion with Teacher:

My teacher told me that developing positive relationships with others is very important for creativity. The benefits from time spent with friends and family is that they learn to share, compromise and listen, as well as develop conflict resolution skills. Fostering these relationships as a child will also help them maintain relationships in their adult life.

  • Children who rely on creativity are often secluded from real life interaction.
  • Using computers and other electronic devices can cause health hazards such as eye strain and other physical problems.
  • The technologies required for full participation can be quite expensive and this can create a gap between the children who have access to the technologies and those who do not have access.

Discussion with Friends:

One of my friend pointed about this subtheme that People have many creativity, most of which benefit themselves and society. Our creativity to eat arises out a natural concern to ensure our own survival, whereas the self-regulation for sexual intercourse arises out of a natural concern to pass our genes to the next generation. Self-regulation to seek affiliation and to protect ourselves and loved ones from harm also offer examples of basic, fundamental self-regulation that promote individual and collective well-being. Self-monitoring can prevent us from engaging in motivated behaviors. People have self-regulation to survive by eating, but they use Self-monitoring to resist their temptation to eat unhealthy foods.

I concluded that creativity is no longer seen as an optional extra; it is becoming an important concern of policy makers and economists. Indeed, the dramatic rise in the number of efforts to measure and monitor the position and lives of children’ in recent years.

Q.3 What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles / websites)?

Hendriyani, M. E., Rifqiawati, I., & Lestari, D. (2022) Creative thinking skills are 21st Century Skills which are difficult to improve when online learning is implemented. This study aimed to develop online learning videos to improve students’ creative thinking skills. The product development process includes problem analysis, material collection, product design, expert test, limited trial, design revision, usage trial, and product revision. The material and design determine the feasibility of the product. Aspects of material assessment include conformity to the curriculum, indicators of creative thinking, and language. Elements of the assessment in terms of media include instructional design, visual communication, and aspects of creative thinking. The validation results show the average percentage of material experts is 97.55%, and media experts is 93.7%. The results of the user response test (teachers and students) were 99.76%. This value shows that online learning videos were included in the very appropriate category as learning media to improve students’ creative thinking skills on the material of the circulatory system. Therefore, the media that has been developed in this study is expected to be followed up in further research and applied in biology learning.

The maker movement is a relatively new global movement in education, suggesting that “making activities”, i.e. problem solving, and physical or digital fabrication can lead to effective learning (Halverson & Sheridan, 2014). Maker movement is built on the theory of constructionism (Piaget, 1950) where people construct their own knowledge through social interactions by making things. Making activities can take place in environments usually referred to as makerspaces or Fabrication Laboratories (FabLabs). In makerspaces, bildung (deep and sustained learning) is achieved through active participation in designing, constructing, and modifying physical or digital products. Research shows that there has been a wide variety of maker platforms and technologies employed in makerspaces (from e-textiles to electronics) in a wide range of subject areas, with different methodologies, reporting diverse learning outcomes (Lin et al., 2020; Papavlasopoulou et al., 2019).

The current study focuses in particular on digital fabrication and physical computing. Digital fabrication in Fablabs usually involves 3D printers, laser cutters, and numerical control (CNC) machines. Physical computing involves programming microcontrollers and other hardware devices with sensors and actuators that can sense and act in the real world. Popular physical computing educational platforms are the single board computers such as Arduino, Scratch Pico Board, Raspberry Pi, and the BBC Micro:bit. While there is a considerable number of makerspace studies that focus on the use of technologies in makerspaces and on student learning outcomes, literature reviews (Lin et al., 2020; Mersand, 2021) revealed that not many studies exist that focus on how students engage in makerspaces. With few exceptions (Giannakos & Jaccheri, 2018), few studies exist that investigate what motivates students to engage in maker activities. Moreover, studies on maker activities in Fablabs in the context of primary school classrooms are rather limited. Our study aims to shed more light on the nature of student motivational and its contributing factors in the context of makerspaces in primary school settings.

Makerspaces and making activities are growing in popularity worldwide with universities, schools, museums, libraries, and community centres to organise making events and programmes in both formal and informal education settings. Making activities range from assembling various products by using low-cost materials (including electronics) to creating various prototypes by utilising advanced technologies such as 3D printing and laser cutting. They span across a wide range of disciplines where people collaborate to solve problems, create knowledge, and fabricate physical or digital products (Martinez & Stager, 2019), supporting a variety of learning outcomes (Kumar et al., 2019). The greatest interest is around science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) subjects (Mersand, 2021), with the makerspace movement to be an effective approach to STEM education (Buxton et al., 2022). People learn by doing and they become creators instead of being passive consumers of knowledge (Fleming, 2015). Researchers agree that makerspaces, in general, promote knowledge and skills acquisition, students’ agency, collaboration, critical thinking creativity, and innovation (Bergner et al., 2019; Bevan, 2017; Katterfeldt et al., 2015; Papavlasopoulou et al., 2019). Digital fabrication and physical computing are two main instances of makerspace activities. Digital fabrication can transform abstract thinking to concrete actions introducing students to design thinking that can lead to creative processes through cycles of iterations and reflection (Smith et al., 2015; Turakhia, et al., 2022). Physical computing interfaces can incorporate a wide range of sensing and control systems and, therefore, introduce programming concepts in a more meaningful way (Przybylla & Romeike, 2014). They also offer opportunities for collaboration (Horn et al., 2012) and creativity (Videnovik et al., 2018). While physical maker activities have a wide range of positive outcomes (Brady, et al., 2017), recent literature reviews (Lin et al, 2020; Mersand, 2021; Papavlasopoulou et al., 2017) suggest that the motivational factors that affect student participation in maker activities and the nature of motivational are two important aspects that need to be further explored.

Q.4 What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions / description from literature.

Developing 21st Century skills in students

Previously, students worked on developing specific skill sets and understanding domain areas that they would need for their future careers. Today’s students, however, will need a set of transferable skills that can be applied in nearly every setting in order to succeed. Many educational experts define 21st-century skills as competencies that must be mastered to collaborate effectively and problem solve in a global economy. Some examples of 21st-century skills include critical thinking, creativity, communication, adaptability, digital literacy and cross-cultural understanding.


Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.


Learner motivational relates to student motivational where the degree of attention, curiosity, interest, optimism, and passion that students show when they are learning or being taught, which extends to the level of motivation they learn and progress in their education. The concept of student motivational typically arises when educators discuss or prioritize educational strategies and teaching techniques that address the developmental, intellectual, emotional, behavioral, physical, and social factors that either enhance or undermine learning for students.

Q.5 What did you want to achieve in this research project?

Objective / purpose of the study:

The purpose of this action research will be develop creativity through self-regulated learning among grade 5thstudents

Objective of this research are:

  1. To develop creativity through self-regulated learning among grade 5thstudents.
  2. To explore creativity through self-regulated learning among grade 5thstudents.
  3. To discover the effect of develop creativity through self-regulated learning among grade 5thstudents.

Research Question:

  • How to develop creativity through self-regulated learning among grade 5thstudents?
  • How effect of develop creativity through self-regulated learning among grade 5thstudents?
  • Which level of goal is best used for develop creativity through motivational technique?

Q.6 Who were the participants in your project?

The targeted population was students enrolled in young learners of government boys high school Killi masoom khan milat abad chaman.. However, in these observations, thirty-two (32) parents, taking a related course, were selected in a School as a sample while considering the research control and validity of this study. This sample included parents of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the student’s parents in young learner’s class. The creativity was developed on the basis of a series of research regarding identification and improvement for young learner’s class students. This curriculum purported to enhance students’ Self-monitoring and depositions through speculating about academic learning and life issue discussion.

Q.7 How did you try to solve the problem?

Method of the study:

The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. The social wonder under investigation was the developing creativity through self-regulated learning among grade 5thstudents. Survey, interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the data knowledge important to respond to the research questions.

Data Collection:

The term survey is normally used on the other hand with audit. It is ordinary and straightforward strategy for data amassing, in actuality, look at. Moreover, it is snappiest, most affordable, private method for social affair data from respondents. The data was accumulated through efficient research gadget. So in such sort inspects, it is indispensable during progress of estimation gadget for quality data to recollect all points of view. Emotional/Quantitative system was used to get critical and cautious information. Information was assembled through survey including simply close completed request in regard to investigate goals. The close by completed overview was made for data gathering.


The entire group from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students of Dar ul Arooba School. It was quite convenient for me, being a resident of Dar ul Arooba School to accumulate quality data from chosen city and Area. Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents the whole population. The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample the students of Dar ul Arooba School. And their teacher was selected for this class based action research.

Ethical Consideration:

From the inception of this research I was extremely particular to carry out an ethical inquiry and therefore gave serious thought to all ethical aspects this study would entail. As teacher-researchers, my young learner’s class responsibility was to my students. An action research is considered ‘ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and Area governing body. Permission was sought from Area head. Permission was granted by the Education Department for this study to take place at the Area where I was teaching. The rights of the participants (young learner’s class students) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.

Q.8 What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?

Research Instrument:

Observation tools were used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of observations were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The observation was prepared to attain study objectives.

Quantitative research

Quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using performing based methods (in particular statistics). Quantitative data contains closed ended information such as that found on attitude behavior and performance instruments .In this study the children have been given a questionnaire to find out Using Developing creativity using self-regulated learning techniques among 10th graders and this observation has been derived and analyzed in terms of numerical data. This is why the research falls under quantitative category.

An observation is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondent’s statistical society. Usually a observation consists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format .A distinction made between open ended and closed ended questions .an open ended question ask the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed ended question has the respondent pick an answer from given number of options.

Q.9 What were the findings and conclusion?

I used scale observations to get students’ responses towards the use for the improvement of Developing creativity using self-regulated learning techniques among 10th graders

1. Adopt a business code of ethics

A business code of ethics will outline employee conduct on issues such as ethics, values, environment, diversity, and employee respect and customer service.

More and more entrepreneurs are choosing to go one step further by changing their governance document to include their commitment to social and environmental goals.

2. Follow a workplace health and safety program

Creating a clear workplace health and safety program will help you establish reliable systems to protect your employees and prevent accidents and injuries. It will also ensure you are compliant with government legislation on health and safety.

3. Commit to protecting the environment

Develop policies and practices that allow your company to fulfill your commitment to the environment. For example, you can consider producing a report that documents your activities and results as they relate to your environmental impact. Some companies produce broader “sustainability” reports, which encompass social, economic and environmental activities.

4. Get your suppliers on board

Ensure your suppliers know and meet your expectations of responsible behaviour regarding issues such as fair pricing, for example. Screen them to determine their past conduct, and tell them what you expect.

5. Be smart about donating money

Get behind causes that are meaningful for your business. A forestry business, for example, might choose to support organizations that protect the environment. Many manufacturing businesses donate to community organizations in towns where they have plants. The idea is to give back to society, while at the same time sending a message about the values of your brand.

6. Don’t greenwash your business

Use marketing techniques that are fair and honest, and that reflect your company’s integrity. Avoid any advertising or communication that could be seen as manipulative or harmful to the public. Make sure you walk the talk and that your company does what it says it does, otherwise your company could risk a customer backlash.

7. Explore B Corp certification

Many public and society-minded entrepreneurs are choosing to get B Corp certified. B Corps are certified “beneficial” companies. Their purpose is to create value for society as well as money. They meet high standards of transparency and accountability, and create positive social and environmental benefit.

This topic argues for an understanding of action regulation as inextricably related to the motivational process of goal setting and planning. Within this conceptual framework our research has explored students’ action patterns, both in normal ongoing classroom situations and in stressful circumstances. Goals are emphasized as essential aspects of the motivational quality of activities, namely through the role they play in the regulation of action. In this study the detection of students’ behavioral goals is addressed. Several achievement and social goals are described and ways to assess students’ goal setting and planning processes are proposed. Strategies that students use to handle classroom stressors are explored. These include strategic flexible action, strategic rigid action, passive behavior, and disorganized behavior. These strategies represent distinct forms of action regulation. Relations between students’ strategies, which are viewed as indications of their control, and agency beliefs are also examined. Finally, classroom features, which might help or hinder students’ social responsibility, are discussed, including teachers’ goals and students’ perceptions of teachers’ goals for classroom activities.


Summary of the Project

Considering the results, it can be concluded that effort focussed on improving creativity, in the individualized action of the tutor, has been beneficial for students in the 5thclass of secondary education. Students suggest that they have improved significantly in creativity skills due to the program model they have been involved in. The most significant results are identified among the variables of self-discipline, commitment, attitudes, intentions, and are closely related to an open parental style.

This transversal study focuses on a specific evolutionary period, which on one hand represents a limitation, but on the other helps to make the results more understandable. If student’s belonged to higher courses, results might be different, especially regarding obedience and respect given their higher degree of autonomy, which would reduce them being associated to the familiar environment, and/or to greater self-reliance. Consequently, it would be convenient to study another age range to complement the one studied here, and carry out longitudinal studies that allow the evolution of social and personal responsibility to be observed.

Additionally, the action of the tutors has been effective according to students’ self-reports. The instruction process should be applied repeatedly, aiming to improve the model and the habits. In subsequent research it would be interesting to collect reports from tutors about how students improve in terms of responsibility when applying the program. These observed-reports would complement the results of the students’ self-reports. Similarly it would be suitable to study in depth the influence of gender as a factor of personal and social responsibility and the reasoned action descriptors. It is understood that variables of socio-emotional development might condition its acquisition, but no study investigates this aspect. Consequently, there is a need for more studies that investigate emotions, with the emotional trials. In this regard, new measurements that study the relations between self-assessment and teaching units, as well as other kinds of reports should be used. It is also necessary to take a more detailed look at the model and how social responsibility is measured so that the questionnaire includes more reliable indices. In addition, systematic coaching and ongoing monitoring by tutors at this level is also a pending task. The task of the teacher or tutor has been especially well valued by students. Teachers should improve the orientations toward better emotional judgment among students, and, additionally, they should offer feedback regarding their students and provide them with proposals in order to solve any difficulties that might arise. All this would mean intensive training for tutors, which should be integrated within the schedule for organizing and designing the school curriculum. Similarly, it should be pointed out that the training should not only be for the staff in charge of implementing the program, but for the entire educational community and their families.

The aim of this research is to improve different responsibility value socialization activities in pre-school value education. In Pakistani, there is a yearly programme in which value should be gained in pre-school value education, but it is lack of activities and how. This research was performed with the studies in a total of 31 students aged 11th, 12TH years, from the beginning of February to end of March in a disadvantaged socioeconomically level school selected to teach the value of responsibility for the academic year 2013-2014 in Eskisehir. At first, the students‟ parents were informed about the research. Different activities were done with the students to teach the responsibility value. This research, figured in accordance with the qualitative research processes. The content analysis method was used as the research analysis method to analyze the data and themes and subthemes. The drawings of responsibility, comments on the drawings, the notes taken during the class discussion, and comments after storytelling, the content analysis were done. The results of this study showed that the application of the value of responsibility to teaching is useful for both students and parents. Student development and student perceptions about responsibility have been evaluated. The idea that responsibility should be considered as a value should to be carried on for life, beginning from pre-school.


Q.11 How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?

I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. When i taught the children then me counsel dictionary and great writers, businessmen and novels .These all things increased my Conflict management also showed them video lesson of some expert and creative writers to teach them. It also helped me to learn new things. This practice also improved my self-regulated learning too.

I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grammar. My work has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other.

The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. Awareness alone won’t help us stop using Conflict management. Awareness after the fact is what I’m talking about here. Starting anything new and trying to create a habit out of it takes work and time. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect.

Q.12 What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

It added a lot of new skills in my teaching .It improved my way of teaching. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of Self-monitoring.


Different kids learn in different ways, and some lessons need unique teaching tools. Good Parents know how to adapt their lesson plan to their students, so that all the kids learn optimally. This trait can take some experience and practice in a classroom setting, so give it time.


Whether you teach high Area chemistry or kindergarten, nothing is a more effective tool than using your imagination to create new and self-regulation ways for your students to learn. You may be inspired by the work of another teacher, mentor or a TV commercial – it doesn’t matter. All that matters is that you take the initiative to find new ways for your kids to learn the material.


Parents could have a hard time without a wide variety of support staff around them. If you feel alone, your Area principal, administrative staff, parent-teacher committee, and more are often available to provide you help. By working as a team, you may have an easier time increasing your students’ ability to learn and have fun.

Professional Development:

In this modern, digital age, Parents need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way Parents teach.


This is likely the single most important skill. Kids these days are stubborn, and many lack the inherent respect for authority that we were taught at a young age. Spending a single day in a room full of raucous teenagers is enough to send any human being to the Looney bin, which is why every good teacher needs patience in order to find a way to work with his students and earn their respect.

Risk Taking

Sometimes to get the big reward, you may need to take a risk. Being a teacher is about finding a way to get kids to learn, and sometimes these new learning methods can be risky. Stick to it and you’ll soon find that others are following your teaching example.


List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual – 6th Edition). (05 marks)

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