B.Ed. (1.5 Year)
Course Code: 8613
Registration No: 0000092585
Semester: Autumn 2022
Theme: Developing 21 century skills of students
Topic: Develop creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students
ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD
Overall background of the participants of the project; area / Area: (socio-economic status, occupation / profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the Area is situated).
This action research was conducted in Govt girls high school Anghapur.
School & Participants Background:
In general the structure of school was huge and lovely. The school had lovely playground and parking. Classes are better in condition. The environment of school was great, better for learning and secure for children. The participants of study were young learner’s (9 class) parents whose children were enrolled in G.G.H.S. I selected young learner’s (9 class) parents which are considered in total 32 members.
Socio Economic Status:
Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. Examinations of socioeconomic status often reveal inequities in access to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power and control. Most of peoples from this area are Govt. employee but some of them are shopkeeper or work in private offices. Most of parents do not afford children education due to their family expenses and their low income but some parents support their children at higher level in well reputed universities. But due to the lack of higher educational institute and low income of their parents, more than 60% children stop their education after intermediate. Overall the financial status of this area is good.
Occupation & Earning Trend:
Parents with Govt. jobs and small businessman are in a better condition to help and support their children educationally, mentally and profoundly. However, Parents with low income because of expenses and low salaries issues can’t give satisfactory to up level their children education. The control of the Parents in this research from this area is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so good. The children who Parents with government jobs are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction. Due to low earning trend of this area, the children face a great deal of difficulties both at home and school, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom exercises. In present some parents drop their children at different shop for learning work and for earning but today due to free education in Pakistan more than 80% children go to school till then matriculation.
In 2022, Karachi’s two districts—Central and Korangi, have the highest literacy rate in Pakistan after Islamabad and Rawalpindi as compared to other parts of the country, the latest statistics recently issued by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics reveal.
Topic: Develop creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students
Q.1 Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution.
Reason for select this specific sub-theme
Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.
Creativity allows us to view and solve problems more openly and with innovation. Creativity opens the mind. A society that has lost touch with its creative side is an imprisoned society, in that generations of people may be closed minded. It broadens our perspectives and can help us overcome prejudices.
As stated by the researcher, creativity development is maximum development and improvement of potential skills when providing appropriate conditions and applying special creativity development/self-development techniques.
Reason for select this specific topic
Researcher chooses this topic because increasing student engagement is vital to creating and sustaining enthusiasm for learning in children of all ages. When young learners engage with their work, their curiosity is stimulated, and their imagination is ignited.
They’re able and willing to express their creativity while forming positive relationships with their peers, leading to a world of possibilities that will last a lifetime.
School students must be prepared to enter a profession that is dynamic, filled with uncertainty and requires a technical background as well as interpersonal skills. The demands placed on modern engineers are to navigate competing priorities set by clients, regulating bodies, environmental groups, and the public at large to take decisive action to solve the problems faced by industry in new and oftentimes, unexpected ways.
At this time in every learning in school, the teacher has a new challenge that is equipping students with 21st century skills that aim to prepare students to become successful individuals in life. Chemistry learning is no exception. Chemistry learning is expected not only to be oriented to memorizing concepts, but also to develop students’ intellectual abilities to adapt to different conditions, respect society, and be tolerant of ideas (Aktanis & Yenice, 2010).
Important skills in the 21st century contain special skills that need to be empowered in learning activities, namely high-level thinking skills such as critical thinking and creative skills, problem solving, metacognition, communication skills, collaboration, innovation, creation, and information literacy (Zubaidah, 2016; Heong et al., 2011). One of the 21st century skills that can be developed through chemistry learning is creative thinking skills (Hadzigeorgiou et al., 2012). The ability to think creatively is a mental process that is used by individuals to bring new ideas, new insights, new approaches, new perspectives and new ways to understand various things (Eragamreddy, 2013; Birgili, 2015; Forrester, 2008). Creative thinking will bring creativity and make students have many ways to solve problems with different perceptions and concepts (Kutlu, 2015; Risnawati & Saadi, 2016).
Some things that cause in chemistry learning, students’ creative thinking skills are still not well developed. First, the teacher does not know the right way to increase students’ creativity in the learning process in the classroom (Laius & Rannikmae, 2014; Cheng, 2010); Second, this ability is too difficult if applied to students who have limited knowledge and thinking skills (Cheng, 2010). Third, schools lack access to students to develop their ability to think independently. Fourth, the learning process in schools emphasizes unproductive thinking, focuses on memorization and looks for one correct answer to the questions given (Risnawati & Saadi, 2016). This will certainly result in the inhibition of students’ creativity.
The implementation of the 2013 curriculum in various schools has experienced many obstacles due to several different factors. Based on the results of interviews with several chemistry teachers in the city of Semarang, the 2013 curriculum has been implemented in schools, but not yet optimal. The scientific approach as a curriculum demand has not been implemented well because teachers have not been skilled in applying scientific approach learning models, both Inquiry / Discovery Based Learning, Problem Based Learning and Project Based Learning. Thus the 21st century skills that should be provided to students have not yet materialized.
The results of the preliminary tests conducted on 64 high school students in the city of Semarang related to the ability to think creatively, showed only a small percentage of students (±
29%) were in the criteria of very creative and creative. In general, students are in sufficient and less creative criteria based on 4 aspects of creative thinking skills (Table 1). The results of observations on students’ creative thinking skills at the time of learning, it turns out that from the four aspects of creative thinking skills, namely fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration, only the fluency aspect is prominent which is when asking and answering the teacher’s questions.
Q.2 What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
After choosing this theme, I discussed this topic with my teachers, friends and supervisor.
Discussion with Supervisor:
My supervisor pointed out that creativity is essential for everyone, especially children. There are a lot of benefits gained from creativity, including that it fosters a positive mood and releases the stress of the day.
Discussion with Teacher:
My teacher told me that developing positive relationships with others is very important for creativity. The benefits from time spent with friends and family is that they learn to share, compromise and listen, as well as develop conflict resolution skills. Fostering these relationships as a child will also help them maintain relationships in their adult life.
- Children who rely on creativity are often secluded from real life interaction.
- Using computers and other electronic devices can cause health hazards such as eye strain and other physical problems.
- The technologies required for full participation can be quite expensive and this can create a gap between the children who have access to the technologies and those who do not have access.
Discussion with Friends:
One of my friend pointed about this subtheme that People have many creativity, most of which benefit themselves and society. Our creativity to eat arises out a natural concern to ensure our own survival, whereas the creativity for sexual intercourse arises out of a natural concern to pass our genes to the next generation. Self-regulation to seek affiliation and to protect ourselves and loved ones from harm also offer examples of basic, fundamental creativity that promote individual and collective well-being. Self-monitoring can prevent us from engaging in motivated behaviors. People have creativity to survive by eating, but they use Self-monitoring to resist their temptation to eat unhealthy foods.
Q.3 What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles / websites)?
Hendriyani, M. E., Rifqiawati, I., & Lestari, D. (2022) Creative thinking skills are 21st Century Skills which are difficult to improve when online learning is implemented. This study aimed to develop online learning videos to improve students’ creative thinking skills. The product development process includes problem analysis, material collection, product design, expert test, limited trial, design revision, usage trial, and product revision.
The maker movement is a relatively new global movement in education, suggesting that “making activities”, i.e. problem solving, and physical or digital fabrication can lead to effective learning (Halverson & Sheridan, 2014). Maker movement is built on the theory of constructionism (Piaget, 1950) where people construct their own knowledge through social interactions by making things. Making activities can take place in environments usually referred to as makerspaces or Fabrication Laboratories (FabLabs).
In makerspaces, bildung (deep and sustained learning) is achieved through active participation in designing, constructing, and modifying physical or digital products. Research shows that there has been a wide variety of maker platforms and technologies employed in makerspaces (from e-textiles to electronics) in a wide range of subject areas, with different methodologies, reporting diverse learning outcomes (Lin et al., 2020; Papavlasopoulou et al., 2019).
The current study focuses in particular on digital fabrication and physical computing. Digital fabrication in Fablabs usually involves 3D printers, laser cutters, and numerical control (CNC) machines. Physical computing involves programming microcontrollers and other hardware devices with sensors and actuators that can sense and act in the real world. Popular physical computing educational platforms are the single board computers such as Arduino, Scratch Pico Board, Raspberry Pi, and the BBC Micro:bit.
While there is a considerable number of makerspace studies that focus on the use of technologies in makerspaces and on student learning outcomes, literature reviews (Lin et al., 2020; Mersand, 2021) revealed that not many studies exist that focus on how students engage in makerspaces. With few exceptions (Giannakos & Jaccheri, 2018), few studies exist that investigate what motivates students to engage in maker activities. Moreover, studies on maker activities in Fablabs in the context of primary school classrooms are rather limited. Our study aims to shed more light on the nature of student engagement and its contributing factors in the context of makerspaces in primary school settings.
Making activities range from assembling various products by using low-cost materials (including electronics) to creating various prototypes by utilising advanced technologies such as 3D printing and laser cutting. They span across a wide range of disciplines where people collaborate to solve problems, create knowledge, and fabricate physical or digital products (Martinez & Stager, 2019), supporting a variety of learning outcomes (Kumar et al., 2019). The greatest interest is around science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) subjects (Mersand, 2021), with the makerspace movement to be an effective approach to STEM education (Buxton et al., 2022). People learn by doing and they become creators instead of being passive consumers of knowledge (Fleming, 2015).
Researchers agree that makerspaces, in general, promote knowledge and skills acquisition, students’ agency, collaboration, critical thinking creativity, and innovation (Bergner et al., 2019; Bevan, 2017; Katterfeldt et al., 2015; Papavlasopoulou et al., 2019). Digital fabrication and physical computing are two main instances of makerspace activities. Digital fabrication can transform abstract thinking to concrete actions introducing students to design thinking that can lead to creative processes through cycles of iterations and reflection (Smith et al., 2015; Turakhia, et al., 2022).
Physical computing interfaces can incorporate a wide range of sensing and control systems and, therefore, introduce programming concepts in a more meaningful way (Przybylla & Romeike, 2014). They also offer opportunities for collaboration (Horn et al., 2012) and creativity (Videnovik et al., 2018). While physical maker activities have a wide range of positive outcomes (Brady, et al., 2017), recent literature reviews (Lin et al, 2020; Mersand, 2021; Papavlasopoulou et al., 2017) suggest that the motivational factors that affect student participation in maker activities and the nature of engagement are two important aspects that need to be further explored.
Q.4 What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions / description from literature.
Developing 21st Century skills in students
Previously, students worked on developing specific skill sets and understanding domain areas that they would need for their future careers. Today’s students, however, will need a set of transferable skills that can be applied in nearly every setting in order to succeed. Many educational experts define 21st-century skills as competencies that must be mastered to collaborate effectively and problem solve in a global economy. Some examples of 21st-century skills include critical thinking, creativity, communication, adaptability, digital literacy and cross-cultural understanding.
Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.
Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
Q.5 What did you want to achieve in this research project?
Objective / purpose of the study:
The purpose of this action research will be develop creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students
Objective of this research are:
- To develop creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students.
- To explore creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students.
- To discover the effect of creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students.
- How to develop creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students?
- How effect of creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students?
- Which level of goal is best used for creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students?
Q.6 Who were the participants in your project?
The targeted population was students enrolled in young learners of G.G.H.S. However, in these observations, thirty-two (32) parents, taking a related course, were selected in a School as a sample while considering the research control and validity of this study. This sample included parents of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the student’s parents in young learner’s class. Develop creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students of research regarding identification and improvement for young learner’s class students. This curriculum purported to enhance students’ Self-monitoring and depositions through speculating about academic learning and life issue discussion.
Q.7 How did you try to solve the problem?
Method of the study:
The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. The social wonder under investigation was the develop creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students. Survey, interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the data knowledge important to respond to the research questions.
The term survey is normally used on the other hand with audit. It is ordinary and straightforward strategy for data amassing, in actuality, look at. Moreover, it is snappiest, most affordable, private method for social affair data from respondents. The data was accumulated through efficient research gadget. So in such sort inspects, it is indispensable during progress of estimation gadget for quality data to recollect all points of view. Emotional/Quantitative system was used to get critical and cautious information. Information was assembled through survey including simply close completed request in regard to investigate goals. The close by completed overview was made for data gathering.
The entire group from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students of G.H.H.S School. It was quite convenient for me, being a resident of School to accumulate quality data from chosen city and Area. Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents the whole population. The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample the students of G.H.S School. And their teacher was selected for this class based action research.
From the inception of this research I was extremely particular to carry out an ethical inquiry and therefore gave serious thought to all ethical aspects this study would entail. As teacher-researchers, my young learner’s class responsibility was to my students. An action research is considered ‘ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and Area governing body. Permission was sought from Area head. Permission was granted by the Education Department for this study to take place at the Area where I was teaching. The rights of the participants (young learner’s class students) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.
Q.8 What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
Observation tools were used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of observations were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The observation was prepared to attain study objectives.
Quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using performing based methods (in particular statistics). Quantitative data contains closed ended information such as that found on attitude behavior and performance instruments .In this study the children have been given a questionnaire to find out Using develop creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students and this observation has been derived and analyzed in terms of numerical data. This is why the research falls under quantitative category.
An observation is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondent’s statistical society. Usually observation consists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format .A distinction made between open ended and closed ended questions .an open ended question ask the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed ended question has the respondent pick an answer from given number of options.
Q.9 What were the findings and conclusion?
I used scale observations to get students’ responses towards the use for the improvement of develop creativity in students through critical thinking in 9th class students
You can encourage creative thinking in your students by implementing creative activities in the classroom. Here are a few examples of creative activities for students of all ages and stages.
– Creating an art journal: Students can create an art journal to express their feelings and emotions. They can use drawings, paintings, collages, and other visual media to share their thoughts and feelings. They can also use their art journals as a creative outlet during stress or anxiety.
– Using music to explore feelings: Music is an excellent way to explore feelings and emotions.
– Writing to express thoughts and feelings: Writing is a powerful form of expression. Students can write about how they are creative, and they can also describe their creative processes and how they use their creativity in their everyday life.
– Using objects to tell stories: Objects can be used to create reports. Students can generate mini-dramas and use things to tell stories.
– Creating a dream board: A dream board is an excellent way to explore dreams and aspirations. Students can create a dream board by pasting pictures, words, and other visual symbols representing what they want to achieve. They can also write down their dreams and aspirations and paste them on the board.
– Creating visual representations of thoughts: Visual representations help students process and understand their ideas better. They can create visual representations through drawings and visual imagery.
– Creating collages: Collages are excellent creative activities for students. They can create collages using words, images, and other visual representations.
– Paint and colour journal: Students can use paint and colour as creative activities. This can help them express their feelings and thoughts and explore new ideas.
3 Ways to Encourage Creativity in the Classroom
– Encouraging a creative classroom environment: The classroom environment has an immense impact on students’ creativity. Accordingly, creating a climate conducive to creativity can help encourage creativity. Some of the features of a creative classroom include open-ended activities, a colourful setting, and various learning tools.
– Utilizing group activities: Group activities are excellent ways to encourage creativity. When students work in groups, they have to negotiate and resolve differences of opinion and arrive at a solution. This can help students to strengthen their creative thinking skills.
– Providing students with choices: Students often lack the freedom to choose creative activities that interest them. You can encourage creative thinking in your students by allowing them to choose their learning activities. You can also use mixed creativity methods, such as arts and crafts, to boost students’ creative thinking skills.
Art is a way to allow creativity, but not the only way. Why does art exercise help? It’s not about the subject itself but how you deliver the issue. Can we have creativity in learning English? Science? Math? Yes!
If you still think creativity is disconnected from academic performance, you missed something.
Creativity is the most crucial element of learning. Creative thinking helps students to think beyond conventional ideas and explore new territories. Creative activities can be implemented as part of the curriculum and during recess. It has been revealed that implementing innovative activities during the last part of the school day can help students maintain their focus. Creativity can be encouraged in every student by integrating it into their learning experiences.
Summary of the Project
Considering the results, it can be concluded that effort focussed on improving creativity, in the individualized action of the tutor, has been beneficial for students in the 9th class of secondary education. Students suggest that they have improved significantly in creativity skills due to the program model they have been involved in. The most significant results are identified among the variables of self-discipline, commitment, attitudes, intentions, and are closely related to an open parental style.
Students are better able to explore creative and innovative solutions when they have control over the project and a sense of ownership. This personal investment in the project can allow them to develop a sense of pride as well as satisfaction in the tangible aspects of their work. In one example, a student intern worked directly with the customer on a project to build a cadaver storage system. The customer was a faculty member of Weber State University and built a relationship and rapport with the student and invited him to attend and present his work at a conference. The student was very engaged with this project due to the level of ownership he had that resulted from him being the primary point of contact with the customer. As a result, he was not only able to design a cost-effective solution to the problem but also develop a sense of pride in the work he was doing.
Additionally, the action of the tutors has been effective according to students’ self-reports. The instruction process should be applied repeatedly, aiming to improve the model and the habits. In subsequent research it would be interesting to collect reports from tutors about how students improve in terms of responsibility when applying the program. These observed-reports would complement the results of the students’ self-reports. Similarly it would be suitable to study in depth the influence of gender as a factor of personal and social responsibility and the reasoned action descriptors. It is understood that variables of socio-emotional development might condition its acquisition, but no study investigates this aspect. Consequently, there is a need for more studies that investigate emotions, with the emotional trials. In this regard, new measurements that study the relations between self-assessment and teaching units, as well as other kinds of reports should be used. It is also necessary to take a more detailed look at the model and how social responsibility is measured so that the questionnaire includes more reliable indices. In addition, systematic coaching and ongoing monitoring by tutors at this level is also a pending task. The task of the teacher or tutor has been especially well valued by students. Teachers should improve the orientations toward better emotional judgment among students, and, additionally, they should offer feedback regarding their students and provide them with proposals in order to solve any difficulties that might arise. All this would mean intensive training for tutors, which should be integrated within the schedule for organizing and designing the school curriculum. Similarly, it should be pointed out that the training should not only be for the staff in charge of implementing the program, but for the entire educational community and their families.
The aim of this research is to improve different responsibility value socialization activities in pre-school value education. In Pakistani, there is a yearly programme in which value should be gained in pre-school value education, but it is lack of activities and how. This research was performed with the studies in a total of 31 students aged 11th, 12TH years, from the beginning of February to end of March in a disadvantaged socioeconomically level school selected to teach the value of responsibility for the academic year 2013-2014 in Eskisehir. At first, the students‟ parents were informed about the research. Different activities were done with the students to teach the responsibility value. This research, figured in accordance with the qualitative research processes. The content analysis method was used as the research analysis method to analyze the data and themes and subthemes. The drawings of responsibility, comments on the drawings, the notes taken during the class discussion, and comments after storytelling, the content analysis were done. The results of this study showed that the application of the value of responsibility to teaching is useful for both students and parents. Student development and student perceptions about responsibility have been evaluated. The idea that responsibility should be considered as a value should to be carried on for life, beginning from pre-school.
Q.11 How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?
I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such tasks.im feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. When i taught the children then me counsel dictionary and great writers, businessmen and novels .These all things increased my Conflict management also showed them video lesson of some expert and creative writers to teach them. It also helped me to learn new things. This practice also improved my writing skills too.
I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grammar. My work has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other.
The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. Awareness alone won’t help us stop using Conflict management. Awareness after the fact is what I’m talking about here. Starting anything new and trying to create a habit out of it takes work and time. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect.
Q.12 What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
It added a lot of new skills in my teaching .It improved my way of teaching. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of Self-monitoring.
Different kids learn in different ways, and some lessons need unique teaching tools. Good Parents know how to adapt their lesson plan to their students, so that all the kids learn optimally. This trait can take some experience and practice in a classroom setting, so give it time.
Whether you teach high Area chemistry or kindergarten, nothing is a more effective tool than using your imagination to create new and self-regulation ways for your students to learn. You may be inspired by the work of another teacher, mentor or a TV commercial – it doesn’t matter. All that matters is that you take the initiative to find new ways for your kids to learn the material.
Parents could have a hard time without a wide variety of support staff around them. If you feel alone, your Area principal, administrative staff, parent-teacher committee, and more are often available to provide you help. By working as a team, you may have an easier time increasing your students’ ability to learn and have fun.
In this modern, digital age, Parents need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way Parents teach.
This is likely the single most important skill. Kids these days are stubborn, and many lack the inherent respect for authority that we were taught at a young age. Spending a single day in a room full of raucous teenagers is enough to send any human being to the Looney bin, which is why every good teacher needs patience in order to find a way to work with his students and earn their respect.
Sometimes to get the big reward, you may need to take a risk. Being a teacher is about finding a way to get kids to learn, and sometimes these new learning methods can be risky. Stick to it and you’ll soon find that others are following your teaching example.
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