B.Ed. (1.5 Year)
Course Code: 8613
Roll number… Registration No:
Semester: Autumn 2022
Region; D. G Khan
Theme: Developing 21 century skills of students
Topic: Developing creativity in grade 8th students through practical learning
ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD
Overall background of the participants of the project; area / Area: (socio-economic status, occupation / profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the Area is situated).
This action research was conducted in Govt Higher secondary school sabowal (chowk azam)…..
School & Participants Background:
In general the structure of school was huge and lovely. The school had lovely playground and parking. Classes are better in condition. The environment of school was great, better for learning and secure for children. The participants of study were young learner’s (8th class) parents whose children were enrolled in Govt Higher secondary school sabowal (chowk azam). I selected young learner’s (8th class) parents which are considered in total 32 members.
Socio Economic Status:
Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. Examinations of socioeconomic status often reveal inequities in access to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power and control. Most of peoples from this area are Govt. employee but some of them are shopkeeper or work in private offices. Most of parents do not afford children education due to their family expenses and their low income but some parents support their children at higher level in well reputed universities. But due to the lack of higher educational institute and low income of their parents, more than 60% children stop their education after intermediate. Overall the financial status of this area is good.
Occupation & Earning Trend:
Parents with Govt. jobs and small businessman are in a better condition to help and support their children educationally, mentally and profoundly. However, Parents with low income because of expenses and low salaries issues can’t give satisfactory to up level their children education. The control of the Parents in this research from this area is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so good. The children who Parents with government jobs are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction. Due to low earning trend of this area, the children face a great deal of difficulties both at home and school, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom exercises. In present some parents drop their children at different shop for learning work and for earning but today due to free education in Pakistan more than 80% children go to school till then matriculation.
In 2022, Litercy Rate of … layyah ….The literacy rate for persons 15 years or older in the city is 78.6%.
Topic: Developing creativity in grade 8th students through practical learning
Q.1 Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution.
Reason for select this specific sub-theme
Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.
Creativity allows us to view and solve problems more openly and with innovation. Creativity opens the mind. A society that has lost touch with its creative side is an imprisoned society, in that generations of people may be closed minded. It broadens our perspectives and can help us overcome prejudices.
As stated by the researcher, creativity development is maximum development and improvement of potential skills when providing appropriate conditions and applying special creativity development/self-development techniques.
Reason for select this specific topic
I can provide some reasons why this sub-theme and topic may be relevant and useful for teachers and educators.
Firstly, creativity is an essential skill for students to develop, as it enables them to think outside the box, solve problems, and come up with innovative ideas. Practical learning approaches, such as project-based learning, experiential learning, arts integration, design thinking, and STEM education, can help to foster creativity among students.
Secondly, grade 8th is a crucial stage in a student’s academic and personal development. At this stage, students are transitioning to adolescence and are beginning to develop their identities and interests. Incorporating practical learning approaches that promote creativity can help to engage students and make learning more meaningful and relevant.
Finally, with the increasing emphasis on 21st-century skills, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and innovation, it is essential for educators to explore and implement practical learning approaches that foster creativity among students. This can help prepare them for the demands of the future workforce and society.
Q.2 What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
After choosing this theme, I discussed this topic with my teachers, friends and supervisor.
Discussion with Supervisor:
My supervisor pointed out that creativity is essential for everyone, especially children. There are a lot of benefits gained from Responsibility, including that it fosters a positive mood and releases the stress of the day.
Discussion with Teacher:
My teacher told me that developing positive relationships with others is very important for creativity. The benefits from time spent with friends and family is that they learn to share, compromise and listen, as well as develop conflict resolution skills. Fostering these relationships as a child will also help them maintain relationships in their adult life.
- Children who rely on creativity are often secluded from real life interaction.
- Using computers and other electronic devices can cause health hazards such as eye strain and other physical problems.
- The technologies required for full participation can be quite expensive and this can create a gap between the children who have access to the technologies and those who do not have access.
Discussion with Friends:
One of my friend pointed about this subtheme that People have many creativity, most of which benefit themselves and society. Our creativity to eat arises out a natural concern to ensure our own survival, whereas the self-regulation for sexual intercourse arises out of a natural concern to pass our genes to the next generation. Self-regulation to seek affiliation and to protect ourselves and loved ones from harm also offer examples of basic, fundamental self-regulation that promote individual and collective well-being. Self-monitoring can prevent us from engaging in motivated behaviors. People have self-regulation to survive by eating, but they use Self-monitoring to resist their temptation to eat unhealthy foods.
I concluded that creativity is no longer seen as an optional extra; it is becoming an important concern of policy makers and economists. Indeed, the dramatic rise in the number of efforts to measure and monitor the position and lives of children’ in recent years.
Q.3 What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles / websites)?
Creativity is an essential part of a student’s development. In grade 8th, students are in the early stages of their teenage years, and their creativity can be fostered through practical learning. This literature review will focus on various ways to develop creativity in grade 8th students through practical learning.Project-based learning is an innovative teaching approach that emphasizes practical learning. This approach is designed to enable students to develop creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. Research has shown that project-based learning can improve creativity among students (Thomas, 2000).Experiential learning is another practical approach to learning that emphasizes hands-on experience. It involves learning by doing, and it has been shown to enhance creativity among students (Kolb, 1984).Arts integration involves the integration of different forms of art, such as music, dance, and visual arts, into different subject areas. Research has shown that arts integration can enhance creativity and critical thinking skills among students (Hetland et al., 2007). Design thinking is a problem-solving approach that emphasizes the development of creativity and innovation skills. It involves empathy, ideation, prototyping, and testing. Research has shown that design thinking can improve creativity among students (Kim, 2016). STEM education involves the integration of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into different subject areas. It is a practical approach that emphasizes problem-solving and critical thinking skills. Research has shown that STEM education can enhance creativity among students (National Research Council, 2011).: Practical learning approaches, such as project-based learning, experiential integration, design thinking, and STEM education, can foster creativity among grade 8th students. These approaches emphasize hands-on experience, problem-solving, and critical thinking, which are essential skills for developing creativity. Teachers should incorporate these approaches into their teaching strategies to enhance creativity and promote student learning
. In England the status of creativity in schools has waxed and waned. In the first decade of this century, in the years following the report by the influential National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education (National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education, 1999)4 , creativity seemed to be in the ascendency. Indeed for a recent period it seemed as if creativity was set to become embedded in the curriculum. As Jeffrey Smith and Lisa Smith put it: “creativity and education sit and look at one another from a distance, much like the boys and girls at the seventh-grade dance, each one knowing that a foray across the gym floor might bring great rewards but is fraught with peril.” (Smith and Smith, 2010:251). As in most OECD countries, education policy in the United Kingdom officially gives some place to creativity. However, while Personal, Learning and Thinking Skills (PLTS) in England (and their equivalent in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) still exist as a framework, they are rarely referred to by policy makers and education stakeholders. The PLTS framework comprises six groups of cross-curricular skills, of which ‘creative thinking’ is one. There are economic and social reasons why creativity might have a place within the school curriculum. Creativity is held as one of the most important competencies by 21st century employers EDU/WKP(2013)1 9 (Florida, 2002), and when creativity is acknowledged by and promoted through policy it is often in response to employability and competitiveness concerns. Education policy widely positions itself as putting creativity at the centre in order that pupils are able to solve problems and challenges beyond the classroom. For example, The Qualification and Curriculum Authority’s understanding of creativity is that it ‘improves pupils’ self-esteem, motivation and achievement’; it ‘prepares pupils for life’; and it ‘enriches pupils’ lives’ (Banaji et al., 2010:23). From the literature it is clear that creativity can also be seen as a ‘social good’ (Banaji et al., 2010) and that it is important, therefore, for ‘the social and personal development of young people in communities and other social settings’. There is often an ‘economic imperative’ involved as well. The National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education (NACCCE) explicitly argued that creativity in education enables a country ‘to compete in a global market, having a flexible workforce, facing national economic challenges, feeding the ‘creative industries’ and enabling youth to adapt to technological change’ (Banaji et al., 2010:35). A central challenge for the cultivation of creativity in schools is their subject-dominated nature. Thus, while creativity spans all subject areas and is not limited to the ‘arts’, there are inherent conflicts in attempting to ensure assessment of cross-curricular concepts. The degree to which creativity is context-free or domain-specific is ambiguous also. For example, in the United Kingdom, the National Curriculum generally treats creativity as cross-curricular, and yet, in the early years curriculum, creativity is located in a set of specific domains including art, design, music, and play. As Anna Craft (2008b) comments, this makes the decision about what exactly to assess (and indeed what not to assess) problematic. In developing our assessment framework we tried two different approaches, one in each of the field trials, to explore this further. A further issue for schools in England is the overriding agenda of school accountability grades, assessment systems and their league tables, new pay regimes, a sense of reduced professional freedom in making curriculum choices locally that competes with serious attempts at fostering creativity (Menter, 2010). It may be that a formative assessment valuing creative dispositions is at odds with the performance agenda of national testing, and is therefore subordinated (Looney, 2009). Craft’s report for Futurelab notes: ‘the powerful drive to raise standards and to make performance judgments about individuals and about schools, can be seen as being in tension with an almost equally powerful commitment to nurturing ingenuity, flexibility, capability’ (Craft, 2008b:3). Yet a closer examination of research, for example into meta-cognitive processes (including mental processes such as ‘challenging assumptions’ – itself a disposition of the creative individual), reveals clear evidence to suggest that the embedding of creative (and other learning) dispositions into lessons actually raises achievement, with attempts to enhance creativity and develop more powerful learners leading to increases in measured test results (Watkins, 2010). The two agendas need not be mutually exclusive. It is certainly feasible both to cultivate creative dispositions and to raise achievement levels in subjects. Indeed, research commissioned by CCE into the impact of Creative Partnerships on attainment found small but significant attainment gains, especially for young people at Key Stages 3 and 4 (Cooper et al., 2011). With the creation of a tool to measure progression in creativity, this relationship would be clearer to see. Unsurprisingly, many teachers focus more closely on high-stakes state-mandated testing than on tracking the development of dispositions such as creativity (Wiliam et al., 2004). . The lack of any requirement to assess creativity in a national, summative way (or even formatively in class) also contributes to the undervaluing of creativity. But the lack of school-friendly tools to assess creativity is arguably another reason for paying less attention to creativity than to content or procedure knowledge.
Q.4 What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions / description from literature.
- Creativity: Creativity is the ability to generate new and innovative ideas, solutions, or products that are original and valuable (Sternberg, 1999).
- Project-Based Learning: Project-based learning is an instructional approach that involves students working on a project or task that is designed to address a real-world problem or issue. It emphasizes collaboration, inquiry, and problem-solving skills (Thomas, 2000).
- Experiential Learning: Experiential learning is a process of learning through reflection on doing. It involves hands-on experience, active participation, and reflection on the experience to gain knowledge and understanding (Kolb, 1984).
- Arts Integration: Arts integration is the practice of incorporating arts into other subject areas, such as science, math, or social studies. It is designed to enhance learning and promote creativity and critical thinking skills among students (Hetland et al., 2007).
- Design Thinking: Design thinking is a problem-solving approach that emphasizes empathy, ideation, prototyping, and testing. It involves a user-centered design process that promotes creativity and innovation (Kim, 2016).
- STEM Education: STEM education is an interdisciplinary approach to learning that integrates science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. It emphasizes problem-solving, critical thinking, and innovation skills (National Research Council, 2011).
These constructs/variables are central to the development of creativity in grade 8th students through practical learning, and the literature suggests that incorporating these approaches into teaching can enhance creativity and critical thinking skills among students.
Q.5 What did you want to achieve in this research project?
Objective / purpose of the study:
The purpose of this action research will be develop creativity through practical learningamong grade 5thstudents
Objective of this research are:
- To develop creativity through practical learningamong grade 5thstudents.
- To explore creativity through practical learningamong grade 5thstudents.
- To discover the effect of develop creativity through practical learningamong grade 5thstudents.
- How to develop creativity through practical learningamong grade 5thstudents?
- How effect of develop creativity through practical learningamong grade 5thstudents?
- Which level of goal is best used for develop creativity through practical learning technique?
Q.6 Who were the participants in your project?
The targeted population was students enrolled in young learners of Govt Higher secondary school sabowal (chowk azam). However, in these observations, thirty-two (32) parents, taking a related course, were selected in a School as a sample while considering the research control and validity of this study. This sample included parents of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the student’s parents in young learner’s class. The creativity was developed on the basis of a series of research regarding identification and improvement for young learner’s class students. This curriculum purported to enhance students’ Self-monitoring and depositions through speculating about academic learning and life issue discussion.
Q.7 How did you try to solve the problem?
Method of the study:
The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. The social wonder under investigation was the developing creativity through practical learningamong grade 5thstudents. Survey, interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the data knowledge important to respond to the research questions.
The term survey is normally used on the other hand with audit. It is ordinary and straightforward strategy for data amassing, in actuality, look at. Moreover, it is snappiest, most affordable, private method for social affair data from respondents. The data was accumulated through efficient research gadget. So in such sort inspects, it is indispensable during progress of estimation gadget for quality data to recollect all points of view. Emotional/Quantitative system was used to get critical and cautious information. Information was assembled through survey including simply close completed request in regard to investigate goals. The close by completed overview was made for data gathering.
The entire group from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students of Govt Higher secondary school sabowal . It was quite convenient for me, being a resident of Govt Higher secondary school sabowal to accumulate quality data from chosen city and Area. Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents the whole population. The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample the students of Govt Higher secondary school sabowal . And their teacher was selected for this class based action research.
From the inception of this research I was extremely particular to carry out an ethical inquiry and therefore gave serious thought to all ethical aspects this study would entail. As teacher-researchers, my young learner’s class responsibility was to my students. An action research is considered ‘ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and Area governing body. Permission was sought from Area head. Permission was granted by the Education Department for this study to take place at the Area where I was teaching. The rights of the participants (young learner’s class students) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.
Q.8 What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
Observation tools were used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of observations were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The observation was prepared to attain study objectives.
Quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using performing based methods (in particular statistics). Quantitative data contains closed ended information such as that found on attitude behavior and performance instruments .In this study the children have been given a questionnaire to find out Using Developing creativity in grade 8th students through practical learningand this observation has been derived and analyzed in terms of numerical data. This is why the research falls under quantitative category.
An observation is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondent’s statistical society. Usually a observation consists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format .A distinction made between open ended and closed ended questions .an open ended question ask the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed ended question has the respondent pick an answer from given number of options.
Q.9 What were the findings and conclusion?
The major findings of the project are listed below.
based on the literature reviewed, there are several key findings and conclusions regarding the development of creativity in grade 8th students through practical learning.
- Practical learning approaches, such as project-based learning, experiential learning, arts integration, design thinking, and STEM education, can enhance creativity and critical thinking skills among students.
- Teachers who incorporate practical learning approaches into their teaching can promote student engagement, motivation, and achievement.
- Collaboration and feedback play an essential role in enhancing creativity and innovation in practical learning settings.
- It is important to provide opportunities for students to explore their interests and passions through practical learning approaches, as this can foster creativity and intrinsic motivation.
- The integration of technology and digital tools can enhance practical learning approaches and promote creativity and innovation among students.
In conclusion, incorporating practical learning approaches into teaching can enhance creativity and critical thinking skills among grade 8th students. Teachers and educators should provide opportunities for collaboration, feedback, exploration of interests, and the integration of technology to promote creativity and innovation in their students.
From the results, it can be concluded that creativity is essential for students learning and digital library technique is good method to develop students Creativity . Findings revealed that during discussion, everybody is required to express his ideas and opinions in a clear and concise manner. This provides ample opportunities to the students for learning. Therefore, there is the need to ensure students possess Creativity to be thoroughly grounded in the use of discussion resources. Furthermore, the study provides important implications both in theory and in practice. First, the findings emphasize the importance of Creativity in using digital library technique. This study brought in a different perspective by examining the importance of the various dimensional constructs of Creativity in the use of digital library technique. Second, the study presents empirical data on discussionmethod as necessary for Creativity . Therefore, librarians need to re-evaluate their roles in promoting Creativity ; they must therefore be more active in the task of inculcating the principles of Creativity and ensuring that students are able to apply the various aspects of Creativity in appropriate situations.
The results suggest that there is a link between Creativity and the use of digital library technique. Therefore, there is the need for universities to introduce programmes such as Creativity & Change (level 9, 20 credits) is about creativity and its power to ignite empathy, passion and learning about our interconnected and interdependent world. It is about imagining more humane, just and viable ways to live in the world and to connect with how we think, live, and act in the world.
Summary of the Project
Considering the results, it can be concluded that effort focussed on improving creativity, in the individualized action of the tutor, has been beneficial for students in the 5thclass of secondary education. Students suggest that they have improved significantly in creativity skills due to the program model they have been involved in. The most significant results are identified among the variables of self-discipline, commitment, attitudes, intentions, and are closely related to an open parental style.
This transversal study focuses on a specific evolutionary period, which on one hand represents a limitation, but on the other helps to make the results more understandable. If student’s belonged to higher courses, results might be different, especially regarding obedience and respect given their higher degree of autonomy, which would reduce them being associated to the familiar environment, and/or to greater self-reliance. Consequently, it would be convenient to study another age range to complement the one studied here, and carry out longitudinal studies that allow the evolution of social and personal responsibility to be observed.
Additionally, the action of the tutors has been effective according to students’ self-reports. The instruction process should be applied repeatedly, aiming to improve the model and the habits. In subsequent research it would be interesting to collect reports from tutors about how students improve in terms of responsibility when applying the program. These observed-reports would complement the results of the students’ self-reports. Similarly it would be suitable to study in depth the influence of gender as a factor of personal and social responsibility and the reasoned action descriptors. It is understood that variables of socio-emotional development might condition its acquisition, but no study investigates this aspect. Consequently, there is a need for more studies that investigate emotions, with the emotional trials. In this regard, new measurements that study the relations between self-assessment and teaching units, as well as other kinds of reports should be used. It is also necessary to take a more detailed look at the model and how social responsibility is measured so that the questionnaire includes more reliable indices. In addition, systematic coaching and ongoing monitoring by tutors at this level is also a pending task. The task of the teacher or tutor has been especially well valued by students. Teachers should improve the orientations toward better emotional judgment among students, and, additionally, they should offer feedback regarding their students and provide them with proposals in order to solve any difficulties that might arise. All this would mean intensive training for tutors, which should be integrated within the schedule for organizing and designing the school curriculum. Similarly, it should be pointed out that the training should not only be for the staff in charge of implementing the program, but for the entire educational community and their families.
The aim of this research is to improve different responsibility value socialization activities in pre-school value education. In Pakistani, there is a yearly programme in which value should be gained in pre-school value education, but it is lack of activities and how. This research was performed with the studies in a total of 31 students aged 11th, 12TH years, from the beginning of February to end of March in a disadvantaged socioeconomically level school selected to teach the value of responsibility for the academic year 2013-2014 in Eskisehir. At first, the students‟ parents were informed about the research. Different activities were done with the students to teach the responsibility value. This research, figured in accordance with the qualitative research processes. The content analysis method was used as the research analysis method to analyze the data and themes and subthemes. The drawings of responsibility, comments on the drawings, the notes taken during the class discussion, and comments after storytelling, the content analysis were done. The results of this study showed that the application of the value of responsibility to teaching is useful for both students and parents. Student development and student perceptions about responsibility have been evaluated. The idea that responsibility should be considered as a value should to be carried on for life, beginning from pre-school.
Q.11 How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?
I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such tasks.im feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. When i taught the children then me counsel dictionary and great writers, businessmen and novels .These all things increased my Conflict management also showed them video lesson of some expert and creative writers to teach them. It also helped me to learn new things. This practice also improved my practical learningtoo.
I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grammar. My work has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other.
The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. Awareness alone won’t help us stop using Conflict management. Awareness after the fact is what I’m talking about here. Starting anything new and trying to create a habit out of it takes work and time. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect.
Q.12 What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
It added a lot of new skills in my teaching .It improved my way of teaching. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of Self-monitoring.
Different kids learn in different ways, and some lessons need unique teaching tools. Good Parents know how to adapt their lesson plan to their students, so that all the kids learn optimally. This trait can take some experience and practice in a classroom setting, so give it time.
Whether you teach high Area chemistry or kindergarten, nothing is a more effective tool than using your imagination to create new and self-regulation ways for your students to learn. You may be inspired by the work of another teacher, mentor or a TV commercial – it doesn’t matter. All that matters is that you take the initiative to find new ways for your kids to learn the material.
Parents could have a hard time without a wide variety of support staff around them. If you feel alone, your Area principal, administrative staff, parent-teacher committee, and more are often available to provide you help. By working as a team, you may have an easier time increasing your students’ ability to learn and have fun.
In this modern, digital age, Parents need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way Parents teach.
This is likely the single most important skill. Kids these days are stubborn, and many lack the inherent respect for authority that we were taught at a young age. Spending a single day in a room full of raucous teenagers is enough to send any human being to the Looney bin, which is why every good teacher needs patience in order to find a way to work with his students and earn their respect.
Sometimes to get the big reward, you may need to take a risk. Being a teacher is about finding a way to get kids to learn, and sometimes these new learning methods can be risky. Stick to it and you’ll soon find that others are following your teaching example.
List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual – 6th Edition). (05 marks)
Adams, K. (2005), The Sources of Innovation and Creativity, National Center on Education and the Economy.
Banaji, S. A. Burn and D. Buckingham (2010), The Rhetorics of Creativity: A literature review.
2nd edition, Creativity, Culture and Education, Newcastle.
Beattie, D. (2000), “Creativity in Art: The Feasibility of Assessing Current Conceptions in the School Context”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 175-192.
Berger, R. (2003), An Ethic of Excellence: Building a Culture of Craftsmanship with Students, Heinemann Educational Books, Portsmouth, NH.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996), Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention,
HarperCollins, New York.
Ericsson, A., R. Krampe and C. Tesch-Römer (1993), “The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance”, Psychological Review, Vol. 100, No. 3, pp. 363-406.
Fillis, I. and A. McAuley (2000), “Modeling and Measuring Creativity at the Interface”, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 8-17.
Florida, R. (2002), The Rise of the Creative Class…and How it’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life, Basic Books, New York, NY.
Guilford, J. (1950), “Creativity”, American Psychologist, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 444-454.
Hetland, L., Winner, E., Veenema, S., & Sheridan, K. M. (2007). Studio thinking: How visual arts teaching can promote disciplined habits of mind. Teachers College Press.
Kim, J. (2016). Design thinking for education: Conceptions and applications in teaching and learning. Journal of Educational Technology Development and Exchange, 9(1), 1-14.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice-Hall.
Lave, J. and E. Wenger (1991), Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Leahy, S. and D. Wiliam (2009), “From Teachers to Schools: Scaling up Formative Assessment”, paper presented at the 2009 AERA Annual Meeting on Disciplined Inquiry: Education research in the circle of knowledge, San Diego.
National Research Council. (2011). Successful K-12 STEM education: Identifying effective approaches in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. National Academies Press.
Thomas, J. W. (2000). A review of research on project-based learning. Autodesk Foundation.
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Smith, J. and L. Smith (2010), “Educational Creativity”, in Kaufman, J. and R. Sternberg (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity, Cambridge University
Wiliam, D. (2006), “Assessment for Learning: Why, What and How? [Online], Cambridge Assessment Network talk, Excellence in Assessment: Assessment for Learning: A supplement to the Cambridge Assessment Network ‘Assessment for Learning’ seminar held on 15 September 2006 in Cambridge, UK,
learning/file.php/1/Resources/Excellence_in_Assessment/Excellence_in_Assessment_-_Issue_1.pdf, accessed 12th December 2011.