Theme: Developing 21 century skills of studentsTopic: Developing creativity through arranging co curricular activities among the students of grade 6



B.Ed. (1.5 Year)

Course Code: 8613





Registration No:   

Semester: Autumn 2022


Theme: Developing 21 century skills of studentsTopic: Developing creativity through arranging co curricular activities among the students of grade 6


Sub-theme: Creativity



Overall background of the participants of the project; area / Area: (socio-economic status, occupation / profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the Area is situated).

This action research was conducted in GGHS

School & Participants Background:

In general the structure of school was huge and lovely. The school had lovely playground and parking. Classes are better in condition. The environment of school was great, better for learning and secure for children. The participants of study were young learner’s (6TH Class) parents whose children were enrolled GGHS. I selected young learner’s (6TH Class) parents which are considered in total 32 members.

Socio Economic Status:

Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. Examinations of socioeconomic status often reveal inequities in access to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power and control.Most of peoples from this area are Govt. employee but some of them are shopkeeper or work in private offices. Most of parents do not afford children education due to their family expenses and their low income but some parents support their children at higher level in well reputed universities. But due to the lack of higher educational institute and low income of their parents, more than 60% children stop their education after intermediate. Overall the financial status of this area is good.

Occupation & Earning Trend:

Parents with Govt. jobs and small businessman are in a better condition to help and support their children educationally, mentally and profoundly. However, Parents with low income because of expenses and low salaries issues can’t give satisfactory to up level their children education. The control of the Parents in this research from this area is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so good. The children who Parents with government jobs are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction. Due to low earning trend of this area, the children face a great deal of difficulties both at home and school, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom exercises. In present some parents drop their children at different shop for learning work and for earning but today due to free education in Pakistan more than 80% children go to school till then matriculation.

Literacy Rate:

In 2022, ,,,,,is a medium size village located in, Punjab with total 49 families residing. The Bahawalpur village has population of 266 of which 136 are males while 130 are females as per Population Census.

In Bahawalpur village population of children with age 0-6 is 22 which makes up 8.27 % of total population of village. Average Sex Ratio of Bahawalpur village is 956 which is higher than Punjab state average of 895. Child Sex Ratio for the Bahawalpur as per census is 1000, higher than Punjab average of 846.



Sub-theme: Creativity

Topic: Developing creativity through arranging co curricular activities among the students of grade 6


Q.1      Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution.


Reason for select this specific sub-theme

Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.

Creativity allows us to view and solve problems more openly and with innovation. Creativity opens the mind. A society that has lost touch with its creative side is an imprisoned society, in that generations of people may be closed minded. It broadens our perspectives and can help us overcome prejudices.

As stated by the researcher, creativity development is maximum development and improvement of potential skills when providing appropriate conditions and applying special creativity development/self-development techniques.


Reason for select this specific topic

Researcher chooses this topic because increasing student co curricular activities is vital to creating and sustaining enthusiasm for learning in children of all ages. When young learners engage with their work, their curiosity is stimulated, and their imagination is ignited.

Co-Curricular activities meaning? Co-curricular activities are those activities that are undertaken along with academic studies. Typically, co-curricular activities are carried out outside the normal classrooms, but they supplement the academic curriculum and help in learning by doing. These activities help students to develop problem-solving, reasoning, critical thinking, creative thinking, communication, and collaborative abilities.

Co-curricular activities in school might be compulsory such as music, art, or drama classes that take place during the day. Others could be voluntary, such as participating in a school sports team, school debating teams, or student newsletters editorial team. In either case, participation helps students in emotional development, social skill development, and overall personality development. Therefore, the importance of co-curricular activities is immense.

In the 21st Century, the world is changing fast. Therefore, the conventional education curriculum, which was developed in the early 20th Century, has to pave the way for a new kind of education and learning. In the book 21st Century Skills: Learning for Life in Our Times, the authors Bernie Trilling and Charles Fadel have premised that “the world has changed so fundamentally in the last few decades that the roles of learning and education in day-to-day living have also changed forever”.

Also, in the book Five Minds for The Futurethe author Howard Gardner has outlined five specific mental abilities that will help one be successful and happy. The five mental abilities or Minds as written by Howard Gardner are – The Disciplinary Mind (expertise in various subjects), The Synthesizing Mind (ability to integrate concepts from different disciplines to solve a problem), The Creating Mind (ability to think creatively to solve problems), The Respectful Mind (appreciation of the diversity in individuals), and The Ethical Mind (fulfilling one’s duties and responsibilities in the society as a citizen).

These concepts emphasize that in the 21st Century, education and learning must surpass the four walls of a classroom. So, the core aim of education and learning should be to foster holistic development. However, the importance of co-curricular activities cannot be overlooked in fostering holistic development.

Holistic development essentially means intellectual, physical, emotional, and social development, which can be achieved only through proper education. Therefore, education plays a fundamental role in holistic development.


Q.2      What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?

After choosing this theme, I discussed this topic with my teachers, friends and supervisor.

Discussion with Supervisor:

My supervisor pointed out that creativity is essential for everyone, especially children. There are a lot of benefits gained from Responsibility, including that it fosters a positive mood and releases the stress of the day.

Discussion with Teacher:

My teacher told me that developing positive relationships with others is very important for creativity. The benefits from time spent with friends and family is that they learn to share, compromise and listen, as well as develop conflict resolution skills. Fostering these relationships as a child will also help them maintain relationships in their adult life.

  • Children who rely on creativityare often secluded from real life interaction.
  • Using computers and other electronic devices can cause health hazards such as eye strain and other physical problems.
  • The technologies required for full participation can be quite expensive and this can create a gap between the children who have access to the technologies and those who do not have access.


Discussion with Friends:

One of my friend pointed about this subtheme that People have many creativity, most of which benefit themselves and society. Our creativity to eat arises out a natural concern to ensure our own survival, whereas the self-regulation for sexual intercourse arises out of a natural concern to pass our genes to the next generation. Self-regulation to seek affiliation and to protect ourselves and loved ones from harm also offer examples of basic, fundamental self-regulation that promote individual and collective well-being. Self-monitoring can prevent us from engaging in motivated behaviors. People have self-regulation to survive by eating, but they use Self-monitoring to resist their temptation to eat unhealthy foods.

I concluded that creativityis no longer seen as an optional extra; it is becoming an important concern of policy makers and economists. Indeed, the dramatic rise in the number of efforts to measure and monitor the position and lives of children’ in recent years.


Q.3      What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles /websites)?

There are a number of literatures in the academic world concerning the effects of CCAs and ECAs on the students’ academic performance and their behavioral and personality patterns. It has been found so far that the CCAs and ECAs have strong association with the students’ academic performance and their behavioral or personality patterns. Weber (2008) observed that the students who are involved in the CCAs perform better on state assessments than students who do not participate in such activities. Wilson (2009) found that the students who took part in the ECAs have higher GPAs, a decrease in absenteeism and an increased connectedness to the school. Mehmood, et al. (2012) in their study found that the CCAs have significant relationship with developing some selected personality traits involving self- confidence, honesty, adaptation, sociability, sympathetic attitude, social obligation and sense of responsibility among secondary school students. They also observed that CCAs have stronger impact on developing such personality traits among male secondary school students than female secondary school students. Daniyal et al. (2012) put forward that the CCAs especially athletic and sports improve the academic performance of the students. Jamal (2012) suggested that the participation in the ECAs promotes the interpersonal skills and professional behaviors of the medical students of the King Abdulaziz University at Jeddah. An experimental study conducted by Bashir and Javed (2012) in order to determine whether the CCAs have an impact on academic performance of the secondary school students. Their study revealed that the CCAs could contribute to the academic performance of the students. Johnston (2013) also found that the ECAs participation have a positive effect on student grade point average and increase the likelihood of students to persist through graduation. Le (2013) found that the ECA participation lowers co curricular activities in risky behaviors for females with low-socio-economic status (SES) more than it does for high-SES females, yet among males the SES gradient is almost non-existent.

Dhanmeher (2014) found that the CCAs have stronger relationship with developing a number personality qualities including adaptation, self-confidence, honesty, sociability, sympathetic attitude, social obligation, sense of responsibility, time management and leadership qualities among Junior College Students. Ivaniushina and Zapletina (2015) put forward that the ECAs have a positive impact on the development of personality and interpersonal skills. They found that the ECAs have helped to develop many personal and social skills of Russian students. Each kind of



the selected ECAs has different effects on the development of the competencies and interpersonal skills of the students. Singh and Mishra (2015) observed that the ECAs, in particular, Yoga, Horse riding, Sport activities, Dance, Music have significant association with the student’s performance in the Government and Private Schools. They found that the benefits of participating in the ECAs involved having better grades, having higher standardized test scores and higher educational attainment, attending school more regularly, and having a higher self concept.


Ismail et al. (2016) observed that the ECAs have a positive impact on the development of personality traits of the students of different universities in Pakistan. Villalobos et al. (2016) found that the CCAs have helped to develop the relationship skills of the Pilipino financial and management accounting students, learn to manage their time effectively and enhance their academic performance. Chua et al. (2017) observed that there is a significant relationship between and among independent variables of number of jobs, number of initial interview, level of participation and soft skills developed through ECAs. Freeman (2017) observed that there is a positive relationship between students’ academic performance, in particular GPAs and their involvement in the ECAs. Ritchie (2018) suggested that academic co-curricular activity participation improves Catholic high school students’ learning as measured by GPAs. Hence, it may be argued that the CCAs and ECAs have a positive impact not only on the academic performance of the students but also on their social skill development. While CCAs and ECAs may have a positive impact on personal and social skill development of the students, there has not been so far adequate volume of studies as to how these activities influence the all-round development of the undergraduate students in the context of a public university in Bangladesh and what to be done if these sorts of activities are to be organized properly Hence, the study is of great importance not only in Bangladesh context but also in the academia.


Q.4      What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions /description from literature.

Developing 21st Century skills in students

Previously, students worked on developing specific skill sets and understanding domain areas that they would need for their future careers. Today’s students, however, will need a set of transferable skills that can be applied in nearly every setting in order to succeed. Many educational experts define 21st-century skills as competencies that must be mastered to collaborate effectively and problem solve in a global economy. Some examples of 21st-century skills include critical thinking, creativity, communication, adaptability, digital literacy and cross-cultural understanding.


Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.

Co curricular activities

Learner co curricular activities relates to student co curricular activities where the degree of attention, curiosity, interest, optimism, and passion that students show when they are learning or being taught, which extends to the level of motivation they learn and progress in their education. The concept of student co curricular activities typically arises when educators discuss or prioritize educational strategies and teaching techniques that address the developmental, intellectual, emotional, behavioral, physical, and social factors that either enhance or undermine learning for students.


Q.5      What did you want to achieve in this research project?

Objective / purpose of the study:

The purpose of this action research will be develop creativity through arranging co curricular activities among grade 6th students

Objective of this research are:

  1. To develop creativity through arranging co curricular activities among grade 6th students.
  2. To explore creativity through arranging co curricular activities among grade 6th students.
  3. To discover the effect of develop creativity through arranging co curricular activities among grade 6th students.


Research Question:

  • How to develop creativity through arranging co curricular activities among grade 6th students?
  • How effect of develop creativity through arranging co curricular activities among grade 6th students?
  • Which level of goal is best used for develop creativity through co curricular activities technique?


Q.6   Who were the participants in your project?

The targeted population was students enrolled in young learners of Dar ul Arooba international school. However, in these observations, thirty-two (32)students , taking a related course, were selected in a School as a sample while considering the research control and validity of thisstudy. This sample included parents of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the student’s parents in young learner’s class. The creativity was developed on the basis of a series of research regarding identification and improvement for young learner’s class students. This curriculum purported to enhancestudents’ Self-monitoring and depositions through speculating about academic learning and life issue discussion.


Q.7      How did you try to solve the problem?

Method of the study:

The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. Thesocial wonder under investigation was the developing creativity through arranging co curricular activities among grade 6th students. Survey,interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the dataknowledge important to respond to the research questions.


Data Collection:

The term survey is normally used on the other hand with audit. It is ordinary and straightforward strategy fordata amassing, in actuality, look at. Moreover, it is snappiest, most affordable, private method for social affairdata from respondents. The data was accumulated through efficient research gadget. So in suchsort inspects, it is indispensable during progress of estimation gadget for quality data to recollect all points of view. Emotional/Quantitative system was used to get critical and cautious information. Information wasassembled through survey including simply close completed request in regard to investigate goals. The close bycompleted overview was made for data gathering.


The entire group from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students of Dar ul Arooba School. It was quite convenient for me, being a resident of Dar ul Arooba School to accumulatequality data from chosen city and Area.Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents thewhole population.The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample the students of Dar ul Arooba School. Andtheir teacher was selected for this class based action research.

Ethical Consideration:

From the inception of this research I was extremely particular to carry out an ethical inquiry and therefore gave serious thought to all ethical aspects this study would entail. As teacher-researchers, my young learner’s class responsibility was to my students. An action research is considered ‘ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and Area governing body. Permission was sought from Area head. Permission was granted by the Education Department for this study to take place at the Area where I was teaching. The rights of the participants (young learner’s class students) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.


Q.8      What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrumentdeveloped?

Research Instrument:

Observation tools were used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of observations were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The observation was prepared to attain study objectives.

Quantitative research

Quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using performing based methods (in particular statistics). Quantitative data contains closed ended information such as that found on attitude behavior and performance instruments .In this study the children have been given a questionnaire to find out Using Developing creativity through arranging co curricular activities among the students of grade 6and this observation has been derived and analyzed in terms of numerical data. This is why the research falls under quantitative category.

Anobservation is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondent’s statistical society. Usually a observation consists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format .A distinction made between open ended and closed ended questions .an open ended question ask the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed ended question has the respondent pick an answer from given number of options.



Q.9      What were the findings and conclusion?

I used scale observations to get students’ responses towards the use for the improvement of Developing creativity through arranging co curricular activities among the students of grade 6




  1. Adopt a business code of ethics

A business code of ethics will outline employee conduct on issues such as ethics, values, environment, diversity, and employee respect and customer service.

More and more entrepreneurs are choosing to go one step further by changing their governance document to include their commitment to social and environmental goals.

  1. Follow a workplace health and safety program

Creating a clear workplace health and safety program will help you establish reliable systems to protect your employees and prevent accidents and injuries. It will also ensure you are compliant with government legislation on health and safety.

  1. Commit to protecting the environment

Develop policies and practices that allow your company to fulfill your commitment to the environment. For example, you can consider producing a report that documents your activities and results as they relate to your environmental impact. Some companies produce broader “sustainability” reports, which encompass social, economic and environmental activities.

  1. Get your suppliers on board

Ensure your suppliers know and meet your expectations of responsible behaviour regarding issues such as fair pricing, for example. Screen them to determine their past conduct, and tell them what you expect.

  1. Be smart about donating money

Get behind causes that are meaningful for your business. A forestry business, for example, might choose to support organizations that protect the environment. Many manufacturing businesses donate to community organizations in towns where they have plants. The idea is to give back to society, while at the same time sending a message about the values of your brand.

  1. Don’t greenwash your business

Use marketing techniques that are fair and honest, and that reflect your company’s integrity. Avoid any advertising or communication that could be seen as manipulative or harmful to the public. Make sure you walk the talk and that your company does what it says it does, otherwise your company could risk a customer backlash.



  1. Explore B Corp certification

Many public and society-minded entrepreneurs are choosing to get B Corp certified. B Corps are certified “beneficial” companies. Their purpose is to create value for society as well as money. They meet high standards of transparency and accountability, and create positive social and environmental benefit.

This topic argues for an understanding of action regulation as inextricably related to the motivational process of goal setting and planning. Within this conceptual framework our research has explored students’ action patterns, both in normal ongoing classroom situations and in stressful circumstances. Goals are emphasized as essential aspects of the motivational quality of activities, namely through the role they play in the regulation of action. In this study the detection of students’ behavioral goals is addressed. Several achievement and social goals are described and ways to assess students’ goal setting and planning processes are proposed. Strategies that students use to handle classroom stressors are explored. These include strategic flexible action, strategic rigid action, passive behavior, and disorganized behavior. These strategies represent distinct forms of action regulation. Relations between students’ strategies, which are viewed as indications of their control, and agency beliefs are also examined. Finally, classroom features, which might help or hinder students’ social responsibility, are discussed, including teachers’ goals and students’ perceptions of teachers’ goals for classroom activities.

In view of the aforesaid discussion, it may be argued that the CCAs and ECAs are multifaceted and multi-dimensional. They are pivotal to facilitate physical development, mental development, moral development, behavioral development and intellectual development of the undergraduate students. They are also very helpful for their personality and civic development. In so doing, they could promote their all-round development. Moreover, these activities could play an important role to allow the students to work for humanity and provide invaluable social services to the distressed people. The CCAs and ECAs could complement academic learning and unleash human potential. Thus, they could contribute to the country’s economic and social development by developing a range of personal and social skills. Hence, it is very necessary to ensure the proper development of these two sorts of activities in order to make sure the quality education and sound academic environment in a university, in particular, science and technology based public university in Bangladesh. As such, the Government should come forward and undertake proper policy to develop the CCAs and ECAs properly and thereby achieve SDGs.




Summary of the Project

Considering the results, it can be concluded that effort focussed on improving creativity, in the individualized action of the tutor, has been beneficial for students in the 6th class of secondary education. Students suggest that they have improved significantly in creativity skills due to the program model they have been involved in. The most significant results are identified among the variables of self-discipline, commitment, attitudes, intentions, and are closely related to an open parental style.

This transversal study focuses on a specific evolutionary period, which on one hand represents a limitation, but on the other helps to make the results more understandable. If student’s belonged to higher courses, results might be different, especially regarding obedience and respect given their higher degree of autonomy, which would reduce them being associated to the familiar environment, and/or to greater self-reliance. Consequently, it would be convenient to study another age range to complement the one studied here, and carry out longitudinal studies that allow the evolution of social and personal responsibility to be observed.

Additionally, the action of the tutors has been effective according to students’ self-reports. The instruction process should be applied repeatedly, aiming to improve the model and the habits. In subsequent research it would be interesting to collect reports from tutors about how students improve in terms of responsibility when applying the program. These observed-reports would complement the results of the students’ self-reports. Similarly it would be suitable to study in depth the influence of gender as a factor of personal and social responsibility and the reasoned action descriptors. It is understood that variables of socio-emotional development might condition its acquisition, but no study investigates this aspect. Consequently, there is a need for more studies that investigate emotions, with the emotional trials. In this regard, new measurements that study the relations between self-assessment and teaching units, as well as other kinds of reports should be used. It is also necessary to take a more detailed look at the model and how social responsibility is measured so that the questionnaire includes more reliable indices. In addition, systematic coaching and ongoing monitoring by tutors at this level is also a pending task. The task of the teacher or tutor has been especially well valued by students. Teachers should improve the orientations toward better emotional judgment among students, and, additionally, they should offer feedback regarding their students and provide them with proposals in order to solve any difficulties that might arise. All this would mean intensive training for tutors, which should be integrated within the schedule for organizing and designing the school curriculum. Similarly, it should be pointed out that the training should not only be for the staff in charge of implementing the program, but for the entire educational community and their families.

The aim of this research is to improve different responsibility value socialization activities in pre-school value education. In Pakistani, there is a yearly programme in which value should be gained in pre-school value education, but it is lack of activities and how. This research was performed with the studies in a total of 31 students aged 11th, 12TH years, from the beginning of February to end of March in a disadvantaged socioeconomically level school selected to teach the value of responsibility for the academic year 2013-2014 in Eskisehir.  At first, the students‟ parents were informed about the research. Different activities were done with the students to teach the responsibility value. This research, figured in accordance with the qualitative research processes. The content analysis method was used as the research analysis method to analyze the data and themes and subthemes. The drawings of responsibility, comments on the drawings, the notes taken during the class discussion, and comments after storytelling, the content analysis were done. The results of this study showed that the application of the value of responsibility to teaching is useful for both students and parents. Student development and student perceptions about responsibility have been evaluated. The idea that responsibility should be considered as a value should to be carried on for life, beginning from pre-school.


Q.11    How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?

I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. When i taught the children then me counsel dictionary and great writers, businessmen and novels .These all things increased my Conflict management also showed them video lesson of some expert and creative writers to teach them. It also helped me to learn new things. This practice also improved my writing skills too.

I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grammar. My work has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other.

The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. Awareness alone won’t help us stop using Conflict management. Awareness after the fact is what I’m talking about here.  Starting anything new and trying to create a habit out of it takes work and time. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect.

Q.12    What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

It added a lot of new skills in my teaching .It improved my way of teaching. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of Self-monitoring.


Different kids learn in different ways, and some lessons need unique teaching tools. Good Parents know how to adapt their lesson plan to their students, so that all the kids learn optimally. This trait can take some experience and practice in a classroom setting, so give it time.


Whether you teach high Area chemistry or kindergarten, nothing is a more effective tool than using your imagination to create new and self-regulation ways for your students to learn. You may be inspired by the work of another teacher, mentor or a TV commercial – it doesn’t matter. All that matters is that you take the initiative to find new ways for your kids to learn the material.


Parents could have a hard time without a wide variety of support staff around them. If you feel alone, your Area principal, administrative staff, parent-teacher committee, and more are often available to provide you help. By working as a team, you may have an easier time increasing your students’ ability to learn and have fun.

Professional Development:

In this modern, digital age, Parents need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way Parents teach.


This is likely the single most important skill. Kids these days are stubborn, and many lack the inherent respect for authority that we were taught at a young age. Spending a single day in a room full of raucous teenagers is enough to send any human being to the Looney bin, which is why every good teacher needs patience in order to find a way to work with his students and earn their respect.

Risk Taking

Sometimes to get the big reward, you may need to take a risk. Being a teacher is about finding a way to get kids to learn, and sometimes these new learning methods can be risky. Stick to it and you’ll soon find that others are following your teaching example.















List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual – 6th Edition). (05 marks)

Barkus, K. R., Nemelka, B., Nemelka, M. & Gardner, P. (2012). Clarifying the Meaning of the Extracurricular Activity: A Literature Review of Definitions. American Journal of Business Education, vol.5:6, pp.693-704.

Barrett, A.M. & Tikly, L. (2010) Conceptualizing Education Quality towards an EdQual Framework. EdQual. Retrieved from: publications/presentations/tbclio10quality.pdf/at_download/file.pdf

Basher, Z. & Javed, T. (2012). The Effectiveness of Co-Curricular Activities on Academic Students of Secondary Schools Students in District Abbottabad Pakistan. Developing Country Studies, vol.2:2, pp.53-59.

Chua, C.J. E., Chuatoco, I.A. G., Dela Pena, A. M.C., Jimenez, D.L. F. & Co, D.

  1. (2017). The Influence of Participation in Extracurricular Activities to the Employability of Industrial Engineering Graduates of One Private University in the Philippines. The Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, vol.5:2, pp.163-170.

CSUF. (2010). Student Co-Curricular Activities. California State University Fullerton. Retrieved from: ubi/univleadacademy/StudentCo-CurricularReport2010.pdf

Cumberland Public Schools. (2004). Co-curricular and extracurricular activities. Retrieved from: Interscholastic%20Sports.pdf

Daniyal, M., Nawaz, T., Hassan, A. & Mubeen, I. (2012). The Effect of Co- Curricular Activities on the Academic Performances of the Students: A Case Study of the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, vol.6:2, pp.257-272.

Dhanmeher, B. R. (2014). Impact of co Curricular Activities on the Non– Academic Development of Junior College Students. M. Phil Thesis, D Y Patil University. Retrieved from: wp-content/uploads/2015/11/impact-of-co-curricular-activities-on-the-non- academic-development-of-junior-college-students-bharti-dhanmeher.pdf

Educate, A. Child. (2016). Education and the SDGs. Occasional Paper No. 2. Retrieved from: 15847d.pdf

Freeman, R. (2017). The Relationship between Extracurricular Activities and Academic Achievement. PhD Thesis, National College of Education, National Louis University.



Ingale, A. R. (2014). Role of Co-Curricular Activities in Student’s Life. Scholarly Research Journal for Humanity Science and & English Language, vol.1:IV, pp.592-594.

Ismail, M., Nadeem, M., Hussain, M. H., Shaheen, M. A., Shahid, M., Ahmad, R. & Mehmood, U. (2016). Role of ECA’s (Extra-Curricular Activities) in Personality Development. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences, vol.4:11, pp.47-56.

Ivaniushina, V. A. & Zapletina, O.O. (2015). Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Development of Personal and Interpersonal Skills in Adolescents. Journal of Siberian Federal University, vol.8:11, pp.2408-2420.

Jamal, A. A. (2012). Developing Interpersonal Skills and Professional Behaviors through Extracurricular Activities Participation: A Perception of King Abdulaziz University Medical Students. JKAU: Med. Science, vol.19:4, pp.3-24.

Johnston, L. H. (2013). The Effects of Extracurricular Activities on Academic Performance and Retention in the Middle Tennessee State University Horse Science Program. Master’s Thesis, The Middle Tennessee State University.

Lane, A. (2017). Open Education and Sustainable Development Goals: Making Change Happen. Journal of Learning for Development, vol.4:3, pp.275-286.

Le, T. (2013). Does Participation in Extracurricular Activities Reduces Risky Behavior? Youth in Focus. Youth in Focus Project Discussion Paper Series, No. 13. The Australian National University.

Leung, C., Ng, C. W. R. & Chan, P. (2011). Can Co-Curricular Activities Enhance the Learning Effectiveness of Students?: An Application to the Sub- Degree Students in Hong Kong? International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, vol.23:3, pp.329-341.


Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). Extracurricular Activities. Sam Houston State University. Schooling, vol.1:1, pp.1-4.


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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔


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