Assignment No. 2
Q. 1 Which factors affect the validity of is test?
Factors Affecting Validity
1. Inappropriateness of the test item.
Measuring the understandings, thinking skills, and other complex types of achievement with test forms that are appropriate only for measuring factual knowledge will invalidate the results (Asaad, 2004).
2. Directions of the test items.
Directions that are not clearly stated as to how the students respond to the items and record their answers will tend to lessen the validity of the test items (Asaad, 2004).
3. Reading vocabulary and sentence structure.
Vocabulary and sentence structures that do not match the level of the students will result in the test of measuring reading comprehension or intelligence rather than what it intends to measure (Asaad, 2004).
Q.2 What are the general considerations in constructing essay type test items? (20)
An essay test permits direct assessment of the attainment of numerous goals and objectives. An essay test demands less construction time per fixed unit of student time but a significant increase in labor in time and scoring.
Essays, classified as non-objective tests, allow for the assessment of higher-order thinking skills. Such tests require students to organize their thoughts on a subject matter in coherent sentences in order to inform an audience. In essay tests, students are required to write one or more paragraphs on a specific topic.
Essay questions can be used to measure the attainment of a variety of objectives. Stecklein (1955) has listed 14 types of abilities that can be measured by essay items:
- Comparisons between two or more things
- The development and defense of an opinion
- Questions of cause and effect
- Explanations of meanings
Q.3 Write the steps of constructing frequency distribution tables. (20)
Frequency Distribution Table: The Frequency Distribution Table in statistics provides the information on the number of occurrences (frequency) of different values distributed within a given time or over a given interval in a list, table or graphical representation. The frequency distribution table refers to the data in the tabular form with two columns corresponding to the particular data and its frequency.
With the help of a frequency distribution table, researchers can analyse the entire data easily and conveniently. They can see any trend emerging from the data. A frequency distribution shows if the observations or data are concentrated in one area or if they are consistent or not. This is important when we have to process large amounts of data. This article will provide everything about frequency distribution and why it is important. We will also see how to make a frequency distribution table with examples. Read on to find out more!
Q.4 Discuss how to inform parents about their children performa? (20)
There are many ways that teachers can do to inform parents about their children academic performance. When I did my Latihan Ikhtisas, one of the ways that I did was to use Quizziz and send the report to parents. This method does work to let the students know that we (teachers) always keep in touch with their parents and let them about their progress.
A week after I sent the email, one of the students told me this “Teacher, mak saya kata saya tak boleh tengok TV kalau tak baca buku. Mak saya kata teacher hantar email ke dia ya beritahu pasal kuiz yang saya jawab?” [Translated: Teacher, my mom told me that I cannot watch TV if I don’t read books. She also told me that you sent an email about the quiz that I took]. I looked directly at him and said “So, what should you do now? Will you answer the quiz seriously next time?” He sheepishly replied “Saya akan ikut cakap mak saya dan saya tak akan main-main bila jawab kuiz” [Translated: I will follow what my mom said and I will not play around while answering the quiz].
Q.5 Write a note on advantages and disadvantages of Norm-refernce testing. (20)
An obvious disadvantage of norm-referenced tests is that it cannot measure progress of the population as a whole, only where individuals fall within the whole. Thus, only measuring against a fixed goal can be used to measure the success of an educational reform program which seeks to raise the achievement of all students against new standards which seek to assess skills beyond choosing among multiple choices. However, while this is attractive in theory, in practice the bar has often been moved in the face of excessive failure rates, and improvement sometimes occurs simply because of familiarity with and teaching to the same test.
With a norm-referenced test, grade level was traditionally set at the level set by the middle 50 percent of scores. By contrast, the National Children’s Reading Foundation believes that it is essential to assure that virtually all of our children read at or above grade level by third grade, a goal which cannot be achieved with a norm referenced definition of grade level