AIOU Course Code 828-2 Solved Assignment Spring 2022

Course:higher education(828). Semester spring (2022)

Assignment No. 02

Q.1 Comparatively discuss the systems of Higher Education in India and Malaysia.

India’s higher education system is the third largest in the world, next to the United States and China. Themain governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission, which enforces its standards,advises the government, and helps coordinate between the center and the state, Accreditation for higherleaning is overseen by 15 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission (UGC).As per the latest 2011 Census, about 8.15% (68 million) of Indians are graduates, with Union Territories ofChandigarh and Delhi topping the list with 24.65% and 22.56% of their population being graduatesrespectively. Indian higher education system has expanded at a fast pace by adding nearly 20,000 collegesand more than 8 million students in a decade from 2000-01 to 2010-11. As of 2020, India has over 1000universities, with a breakup of 54 central universities, 416 state universities, 125 deemed universities,361 private universities, 7 Institute under State Legislature Act, and 159 Institutes of National Importancewhich include IIMs, AIIMS, IITs, IIITs, 11SERs and NITs among others. Other institutions include 52,627colleges as government degree colleges, private colleges, standalone institutes and post-graduate researchinstitutions, functioning under these universities as reported by the MHRD in 2020. Colleges may beAutonomous, i.e. empowered to examine their own degrees, up to PhD level in some cases, or non-autonomous, in which case their examinations are under the supervision of the university to which theyare affiliated; in either case, however, degrees are awarded in the name of the university rather than thecollege.The emphasis in the tertiary level of education lies on science and technology. Indian educationalinstitutions by 2004 consisted of many technology institutes. Distance learning and open education is alsoa feature of the Indian higher education system and is looked after by the Distance Education Council. IndiraGandhi National Open University (IGNOU) is the largest university in the world by number of students,having approximately 3.5 million students across the globe.Main Institutions of IndiaSome institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Birla Institute of Technologyand Science (BITS), National Institutes of Technology (NITs), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Indian Instituteof Science Education and Research (ISERs), Indian Institutes of Management (TIMs), University of Delhi,University of Calcutta, University of Madras, Jawaharlal Nehru University have been globally acclaimed fortheir standard of education. However, Indian universities still lag behind universities such as Harvard,Cambridge, and Oxford.

Q.2 Explain the concept and reasons of wastage in Higher Education. Give suggestions to minimize wastage in higher education in Pakistan.

Educational wastage exists in the following forms: (a) failure of the system to provide a universal education; (b) failure to recruit children into the system; (c) failure to hold children within the system; (d) failure of the system to set appropriate objectives; and (e) inefficiency in the achievement of such objectives.

The most frequently suggested reason why children and adolescents in developing countries do not go to school or leave school early is that there are no schools to go to, or that there are not enough places in them. In addition the cost of attending school during periods of manpower shortage may be a determining factor, particularly in agricultural areas. Marriage customs may encourage early marriage and childbirth. Grave illness is also an important factor. Many children leave school early because they, or their parents, do not find what is taught at school relevant to their needs in future employment. Others leave because they are needed as helpers at home or on the farm. Finally, many parents feel that it is more important for their children to receive traditional education and training on the job rather than spend their time in classroom.

A major aspect of educational wastage occurs when students leave the educational system prior to the termination of an educational cycle. Dropping-out in this sense is not related to the existence or duration of compulsory schooling and therefore leaving school before the minimum age is not regarded as dropping out. However, those who leave before the end of a cycle, but who have satisfied the compulsory education laws by staying at school until they have reached the minimum age, would be regarded as dropouts; and in countries which do not have compulsory education, a child who left school before completion of the stage in which he had registered would be regarded as a dropout.


Q.3 Highlight the significance of assessment at higher education level. What is the role of teacher in assessment? Explain.

Assessment is a critical step in the learning process. It determines whether or not the course’s learning objectives have been met. A learning objective is what students should know or be able to do by the time a lesson is completed. Assessment affects many facets of education, including student grades, placement, and advancement as well as curriculum, instructional needs, and school funding. Student Learning

Assessment is a key component of learning because it helps students learn. When students are able to see how they are doing in a class, they are able to determine whether or not they understand course material. Assessment can also help motivate students. If students know they are doing poorly, they may begin to work harder.

Imagine this situation:

Johnny is a chemistry student. He just took his first exam in his class. He earned a 56%; he needs a 79% to pass the class. The low exam score lets Johnny know that he missed something important he should have learned. Perhaps, he did not understand the material, or maybe he did not study long enough. Whatever the case, the assessment results let Johnny know that he did not successfully learn the material and that he must try something new in order to earn a better score.

Q.4 Suggest the measures to improve quality and access in higher education.

Increasing graduation rates and levels of educational attainment will accomplish little if students do not learn something of lasting value. Yet federal efforts over the last several years have focused much more on increasing the number of Americans who go to college than on improving the education they receive once they get there.

By concentrating so heavily on graduation rates and attainment levels, policy makers are ignoring danger signs that the amount that students learn in college may have declined over the past few decades and could well continue to do so in the years to come. The reasons for concern include:

·       College students today seem to be spending much less time on their course work than their predecessors did 50 years ago, and evidence of their abilities suggests that they are probably learning less than students once did and quite possibly less than their counterparts in many other advanced industrial countries.

·       Employers complain that many graduates they hire are deficient in basic skills such as writing, problem solving and critical thinking that college leaders and their faculties consistently rank among the most important goals of an undergraduate education.

·       Most of the millions of additional students needed to increase educational attainment levels will come to campus poorly prepared for college work, creating a danger that higher graduation rates will be achievable only by lowering academic standards.

Q.5 Explain the role of technology in higher education of Pakistan with examples.

Colleges and universities have generally been quick to adopt new technologies, often even before their educational value has been proven. Throughout its history, higher education has experimented with technological advances as diverse as the blackboard and the personal computer. Some technologies have become permanent parts of the higher education enterprise. Others, such as the slide rule and the 16-millimeter movie projector, have been replaced as more sophisticated or more cost-effective technologies have emerged to take their place.

At the dawn of the twenty-first century, new and rapidly improving technologies are in the process of transforming higher education. Each year since 1994, the Campus Computing Survey has shown increased use in college classrooms of technology-dependent resources such as e-mail, the Internet, course web pages, and computer simulations. Technology has the potential to revolutionize the traditional teaching and learning process. It can eliminate the barriers to education imposed by space and time and dramatically expand access to lifelong learning. Students no longer have to meet in the same place at the same time to learn together from an instructor. Fundamentally, modern technologies have the ability to change the conception of a higher education institution. No longer is a higher education institution necessarily a physical place with classrooms and residence halls where students come to pursue an advanced education. Thanks to recent developments in technology, the standard American image of a college or university as a collection of ivycovered buildings may need to be revised for the first time since the founding of Harvard in 1636.


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