Course: Teacher Education in Pakistan (829)
Semester: Spring, 2022
Assignment No. 01
Q.1 Discuss the instructional responsibilities of a teacher. Highlight the role of teacher as ‘Nation Builder”.
Broadly speaking, the function of teachers is to help students learn by imparting knowledge to them and by setting up a situation in which students can and will learn effectively. But teachers fill a complex set of roles, which vary from one society to another and from one educational level to another. Some of these roles are performed in the school, some in the community.
Agent of social change
In those areas in which teaching has not yet become a profession, the teacher may fill fewer of these roles. The primary-school teacher in an agricultural society, for example, will fill only the first five of the school roles and the first and possibly the second of the community roles.
Some of the roles conflict; that is, the performance of one, that of disciplinarian, for example, tends to conflict with another, such as that of confidant to students, or the role of independent and creative scholar will tend to conflict with that of the bureaucrat. In the community the role of surrogate of middle-class morality tends to conflict with the role of agent of social change. In the presence of these role conflicts, the teacher must learn to balance, to know when and how vigorously to act in a particular role, and when to shift to another in a flexible way.
Q.2 Explain the Uranic concept of Teacher Education. According to Islamic perspective which methods of teaching should be used?
The word Islam defined by the Quran itself means submission to the Supreme Being and compliance with His laws, which constitutes Nature. Islam lays special emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge.
Concept of vicegerent of man: According to Quran, Allah has made man as a vicegerent due to knowledge (IIm-ul-Asma), when angels argues about the vicegerent of man than Allah (SWT) taught Adam the names of some things and then Adam told them and hence proved his ability for vicegerent on earth. This shows the importance of acquiring knowledge from the Quranic point of view (Surah AL-Baqra Foruth Ruku). It is obligatory alike for both Muslim male and female.
Knowledge is of two types, revealed knowledge and acquired knowledge. Revealed knowledge has been given to human beings, through prophets by Allah. Acquired knowledge is that which is being acquired by the human beings though the study of natural phenomena, attitude of man and through the study of society. Quran says that for the prosperous life on earth both kinds of knowledge, revealed and acquired is necessary. It shows the basis of the educational set-up in Islam where the children are not only equipped with religious knowledge but also with acquired that is scientific knowledge so that they can live a righteous and prosperous life. That is why the knowledge in Islam is considered as the greatest gift of Allah to Man. It helps man to attain righteous and prosperous life. Education is the process through which knowledge is transmitted from a section of society to another section. It also reflects the philosophy on which it is based. Islamic philosophy derives its origin from the spirit of teachings of the Quran and Hadith (the saying of the Holy Prophet may peace be upon him). The Qayas and Fiqqah, are also the crucial components.The word Quran literally means reading or recitation. Islamic education aims to discovering and formulating Allah’s will.
Q.3 critically analyze the role of pre-service and in-service training in the professional development of a teacher.
According to Kothari commission, a teacher who unlike an ordinary worker, acts as a master, crafts man, an artist, a strategist and a powerful motivator. The environs of a classroom are enlivened by the inspiring, dynamic, enthusiastic, encouraging, skillful and dedicated teacher. It is he who shapes the destiny of students and that of the future citizens who eventually shape the destiny of the country. Such a teacher only can successfully in culture among children values that strengthen the ideals of social justice, equity, secularism and pluralism.
By its very definition, a professional, including a teacher is a lifelong learner because of his association with scientific knowledge which keeps growing and so opportunities have to be afforded to ensure that he keeps learning and developing throughout his professional life. This is precisely the responsibility of teacher education system which is more than a mere combination of two of its major components i.e. pre-service teacher preparation and in-service education.
Q.4 Discuss the prevailing structure of Teacher Education in the country. What measures should be taken for its improvement?
Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community. The professionals who engage in training the prospective teachers are called teacher educators (or, in some contexts, teacher trainers).
There is a longstanding and ongoing debate about the most appropriate term to describe these activities. The term ‘teacher training’ (which may give the impression that the activity involves training staff to undertake relatively routine tasks) seems to be losing ground, at least in the U.S., to ‘teacher education’ (with its connotation of preparing staff for a professional role as a reflective practitioner).The two major components of teacher education are in-service teacher education and pre-service teacher education.[
The process by which teachers are educated is the subject of political discussion in many countries, reflecting both the value attached by societies and cultures to the preparation of young people for life, and the fact that education systems consume significant financial resources.
Q.5 Explicate the concept of Student (Practice) Teaching by focusing at the sequential steps of pre-service training.
Pre-service teacher preparation programmes, also called initial teacher training or initial teacher education, vary greatly across countries. The structure, coursework, and field experiences of pre-service programmes are important to consider when designing or reforming teacher training because they all contribute to the level of preparation. High-quality teachers need high-quality training, but many countries may need to consider cost-effectiveness in deciding on the specific combination of pre-service and in-service training experiences needed in order to deploy enough teachers for growing education systems.
Issues and Discussion
Pre-service training programme structures: Pre-service programmes may be conducted as part of a secondary school diploma course, on higher education campuses, in other schools through school partnership programmes, or through online and other forms of distance education. It is necessary to consider the local context and national needs in determining which types of programmes are most appropriate.(4) For example, Pakistan used distance training via radio, television, and correspondence beginning in the 1970s to achieve a rapid increase in the number of trained primary school teachers