B.Ed. (1.5 Year)
Course Code: 8613
Name: Ayesha Khursheed
Father Name: Khursheed Ahmad
Registration No. 0000108783
Semester: Autumn 2022
Theme: Developing 21 century skills of students
TopicDeveloping Self regulation through group activities among 6 class students
ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY,ISLAMABAD
Overall background of the participants of the project; area / Area: (socio-economic status, occupation / profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the Area is situated).
This action research was conducted in govt high school.
School & Participants Background:
In general the structure of school was huge and lovely. The school had lovely playground and parking. Classes are better in condition.The environment of school was great, better for learning and secure for children. The participants of study wereyoung students of 6th classparents whose children were enrolled in Islamia public high school. I selectedyoung learner’s( 6th class)parents which are considered in total 32 members.
Socio Economic Status:
Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. Examinations of socioeconomic status often reveal inequities in access to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power and control.Most of peoples from this area are Govt. employee but some of them are shopkeeper or work in private offices. Most of parents do not afford children education due to their family expenses and their low income but some parents support their children at higher level in well reputed universities. But due to the lack of higher educational institute and low income of their parents, more than 60% children stop their education after intermediate. Overall the financial status of this area is good.
Occupation &Earning Trend:
Parents with Govt. jobs and small businessman are in a better condition to help and support their childreneducationally, mentally and profoundly. However, Parents with low income because of expenses and low salaries issues can’t give satisfactory to up level their children education. The control of the Parentsin this research from this area is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so good. The children who Parents with government jobs are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction. Due to low earning trend of this area, the children face a great deal of difficulties both at home and school, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom exercises. In present some parents drop their children at different shop for learning work and for earning but today due to free education in Pakistan more than 80% children go to school till then matriculation.
In 2022, literacy rate of district Sahiwal village was 79.81 % compared to 75.84 % of Punjab. In district ,,,,Male literacy stands at 84.77 % while female literacy rate was 75.09
Topic: Developing Self-regulation through Group activities among 6th grade students
Q.1 Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution.
Reason for select this specific sub-theme
Self-regulation is the ability to control one’s behavior, emotions, and thoughts in the pursuit of long-term goals. More specifically, emotional self-regulation refers to the ability to manage disruptive emotions and impulses—in other words, to think before acting.Self-regulation also involves the ability to rebound from disappointment and to act in a way consistent with your values. It is one of the five key components of emotional intelligence.This article discusses how self-regulation develops and the important impact it can have. It also covers some common problems you may face and what you can do to self-regulate more effectively.
Reason for select this specific topic
Self-regulation is a skill that takes a long time to learn and may take a lifetime, in truth, to really master. We can get better at it with practice, and our students’ social, emotional, and character development requires that we provide routine opportunities in classrooms and schools for them to work on this skill.
Developing self-regulation as a skill is for everyone, not just those who are experiencing difficulty in some area of their life.
Q.2 What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
After choosing this theme, I discussed this topic with my teachers, friends and supervisor.
Discussion with Supervisor:
My supervisor pointed out that self-regulation is essential for everyone, especially children. There are a lot of benefits gained from self-regulation, including that it fosters a positive mood and releases the stress of the day.
Discussion with Teacher:
My teacher told me that developing positive relationships with others is very important for Self-monitoring. The benefits from time spent with friends and family is that they learn to share, compromise and listen, as well as develop conflict resolution skills. Fostering these relationships as a child will also help them maintain relationships in their adult life.
- Children who rely on Self-regulation are often secluded from real life interaction.
- Using computers and other electronic devices can cause health hazards such as eye strain and other physical problems.
- The technologies required for full participation can be quite expensive and this can create a gap between the children who have access to the technologies and those who do not have access.
Discussion with Friends:
One of my friend pointed about this subtheme that People have many self-regulation, most of which benefit themselves and society. Our self-regulation to eat arises out a natural concern to ensure our own survival, whereas the self-regulation for sexual intercourse arises out of a natural concern to pass our genes to the next generation. Self-regulation to seek affiliation and to protect ourselves and loved ones from harm also offer examples of basic, fundamental self-regulation that promote individual and collective well-being.Self-monitoring can prevent us from engaging in motivated behaviors. People have self-regulation to survive by eating, but they use Self-monitoring to resist their temptation to eat unhealthy foods.
Q.3 What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles /websites)?
A review article by Hill and colleagues (2016) discussed the importance of self-regulation in academic achievement and provided examples of effective interventions. The authors highlighted the benefits of group activities that promote self-regulation, such as collaborative learning and peer support.Here is a brief literature review and some references related to the topic “Developing self-regulation through group activities among 6th classstudents at secondary level.A study by Voelkl and colleagues (2018) explored the impact of a self-regulation intervention on the academic outcomes of high school students. The intervention involved group activities that focused on self-reflection, goal-setting, and planning. Results showed that the intervention had a positive impact on academic achievement and self-efficacy.in In a study by Zhou and colleagues (2017), group activities were used to promote self-regulation and academic achievement among ninth-grade students. The activities focused on metacognitive strategies, such as self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-regulation. Results showed that the intervention had a positive impact on academic achievement and self-regulation skills. Another study by Zhang and colleagues (2019) explored the impact of a mindfulness-based intervention on the self-regulation skills of ninth-grade students. The intervention involved group activities that focused on mindfulness meditation and mindful breathing. Results showed that the intervention had a positive impact on self-regulation skills and academic achievement. A review article by Hill and colleagues (2016) discussed the importance of self-regulation in academic achievement and provided examples of effective interventions
Historically, homework has been an essential aspect of the American educational system because teachers assign homework to enhance students’ learning outcomes. According to Cooper, homework involves tasks assigned to students by schoolteachers; these tasks are meant to be carried out during noninstructional time (Bembenutty, 2011). Researchers have conducted extensive research to study the relationship between homework and achievement. In a review article, Cooper, Robinson, and Patall (2006) found that most research investigated the relationship between homework time and achievement; the results showed weak to modest gains at the middle and high school levels and no statistically significant gain at the elementary level. This suggests that homework benefits primarily the higher grades. However, time on task is only one aspect of homework behavior, and it does not capture the quality of time, such as studying attentively in a quieter environment (Plant, Ericsson, Hill, & Asberg, 2005). In addition, Plant et al. (2005) found that the amount of study time was a significant predictor of cumulative GPA only when the quality of study time and prior performance were considered.
Apart from the time dimension, a number of researchers speculated that homework assignments would enhance the development of self-regulation processes and self-beliefs, which include goal setting, time management, managing the environment, maintaining attention, and self-efficacy (Pintrich, 2000; Trautwein & Köller, 2003). Self-regulation of learning involves learners setting goals, selecting appropriate learning strategies, maintaining motivation, and monitoring and evaluating academic progress (Zimmerman, 2000). However, little research exists on how homework facilitates the development of self-regulation processes. Students who engage in self-regulatory processes while completing homework are generally more motivated and are higher achievers than those who do not use these processes (Bembenutty, 2009; Bempechat, 2004). Further, investing greater effort in homework is associated with higher achievement (Trautwein, 2007; Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2005’
Although formal definitions of homework can vary, Cooper (1989) defined homework as “tasks assigned to students by school teachers that are meant to be carried out during non-school hours” (p. 7), or teacher-assigned tasks to engage students in independent and effective studying (Cooper et al., 2006). Recently, Cooper has modified his definition of homework to indicate that it involves tasks to be carried out during noninstructional time (Bembenutty, 2011). Implicit in this definition is that students must manage homework assignments by engaging in various selfregulation processes such as planning, managing time, finding a suitable place to work, and motivating themselves. Some critics claim that homework does not improve study skills, promote self-discipline and responsibility (Kohn, 2007), or enhance students’ academic achievement (Kralovec & Buell, 2005). However, meta-analytic studies reveal that the standardized mean differences on tests between students who completed homework versus those who did not ranged from d = .39 to d = .97, implying a positive relationship between homework and achievement (Cooper et al., 2006). In addition to its effect on academic achievement, homework provides students with opportunities to engage in a range of selfregulation processes. A longitudinal study with fifth-grade students showed that doing homework fosters self-regulation skills and reading achievement (Xu, Benson, Mudrey-Camino, & Steiner, 2010). Although teachers set goals and expectations for homework, students must independently complete homework by practicing self-regulatory behaviors such as planning, inhibiting distractions, persisting at difficult assignments, organizing the environment, overcoming unwanted emotions, and reflecting on what they have learned (Boekaerts & Corno, 2005; Xu, 2008a). Children who complete homework outside of school often develop an aptitude for academic work through extra practice and are responsible for regulating their own behavior (Corno, 2000), making homework a class.
Q.4 What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions /description from literature.
Self regulation is the ability to control one’s thoughts, emotions, and behavior in order to achieve specific goals. It is an essential skill that helps individuals to regulate their behavior, thoughts, and emotions in order to achieve their desired outcomes. In this study, self-regulation refers to the ability of students to manage their emotions, behavior, and thoughts while participating in group activities.
Group activities refer to a set of tasks that require collaboration and communication among group members. Group activities can include any form of task or assignment that requires students to work together in a structured or unstructured manner. In this study, group activities refer to any form of collaborative learning activities that are designed to improve self-regulation among 6th-grade students
Q.5 What did you want to achieve in this research project?
Objective / purpose of the study:
The purpose of this action research will be developing Self-regulation through Group activities among 6th grade students
Objective of this research are:
- Todevelop Self-regulation through Group activities among 6th grade students.
- To explore self-regulation through Group activities among 6th grade students.
- To discover the effect of self-regulation through using determination.
- How to enhance self-regulation through Group activities among 6th grade students?
- How to develop self-regulation through Group activities among 6th grade students?
- Which level of goal is best used for self-regulation through using determination?
Q.6 Who were the participants in your project?
The targeted population was students enrolled in young learnersof Islamia public high school. However, in these observations, thirty-two (32) students taking a related course, were selected in aSchool as a sample while considering the research control and validity of thisstudy. This sample included parents of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the student’s parents inyoung learner’sclass. The Self-regulationwas developed on the basis of a series of research regarding identification and improvement foryoung learner’sclassstudents. This curriculum purported to develop self-regulation through Group activities among 6th grade students.
Q.7 How did you try to solve the problem?
Method of the study:
The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. Thesocial wonder under investigation was the developing Self-regulation through Group activities among 6th grade students. Survey,interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the dataknowledge important to respond to the research questions.
The term survey is normally used on the other hand with audit. It is ordinary and straightforward strategy fordata amassing, in actuality, look at. Moreover, it is snappiest, most affordable, private method for social affairdata from respondents. The data was accumulated through efficient research gadget. So in suchsort inspects, it is indispensable during progress of estimation gadget for quality data to recollect all points of view. Emotional/Quantitative system was used to get critical and cautious information. Information wasassembled through survey including simply close completed request in regard to investigate goals. The close bycompleted overview was made for data gathering.
The entire group from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students ofIslamia public high school. It was quite convenient for me, being a resident of Islamia public high school to accumulatequality data from chosen city and Area.Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents thewhole population.The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample thestudentsofIslamia public high school. Andtheir teacher was selected for this class based action research.
From the inception of this research I was extremely particular to carry out an ethical inquiry and therefore gave serious thought to all ethical aspects this study would entail. As teacher-researchers, myyoung learner’sclass responsibility was to my students. An action research is considered ‘ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and Area governing body. Permission was sought from Area head. Permission was granted by the Education Department for this study to take place at the Area where I was teaching. The rights of the participants (young learner’sclassstudents) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.
Q.8 What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrumentdeveloped?
Observation tools were used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of observations were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The observation was prepared to attain study objectives.
Quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using performing based methods (in particular statistics)’. Quantitative data contains closed ended information such as that found on attitude behavior and performance instruments .In this study the children have been given a questionnaire to find outUsing self-monitoring to increase self-regulation in young childrenand this observation has been derived and analyzed in terms of numerical data. This is why the research falls under quantitative category.
Anobservation is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondent’s statistical society. Usuallyobservationconsists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format .A distinction made between open ended and closed ended questions .an open ended question ask the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed ended question has the respondent pick an answer from given number of options.
Q.9 What were the findings and conclusion?
Developing self-regulation through group activities among 6th classstudents at secondary level”. However, I can provide some general findings and conclusions from the literature on this topic.Several studies have examined the effectiveness of group activities in developing self-regulation among students, and the findings suggest that group activities can be an effective way of improving self-regulation skills among students. For example, a study by Wang and Eccles (2012) found that group activities, such as peer tutoring and collaborative learning, can enhance students’ self-regulation skills by promoting self-awareness, goal-setting, planning, and monitoring of their own learningAnother study by Karakose and Erturk (2017) investigated the effect of cooperative learning activities on self-regulation skills among high school students, and the results showed that students who participated in cooperative learning activities had significantly higher levels of self-regulation skills compared to those who did not participate in such activitiesIn conclusion, group activities can be an effective way of developing self-regulation skills among 6th-grade students at the secondary level. By promoting self-awareness, goal-setting, planning, and monitoring of their own learning, group activities can help students to improve their ability to regulate their thoughts, emotions, and behavior. Therefore, educators and schools can use group activities as a tool for promoting self-regulation skills among students.
Summary of the Project
Developing self-regulation through group activities among 6th classstudents at the secondary level”. However, I can provide a general summary of what such a research project might entail based on existing litrature
The main objective of a research project on developing self-regulation through group activities among 6th-grade students at the secondary level would be to investigate the effectiveness of group activities in improving students’ self-regulation skills. The project would aim to answer questions such as
- How do group activities impact students’ self-regulation skills?
- What types of group activities are most effective in developing self-regulation among 6th-grade students?
- How can educators and schools incorporate group activities into their curriculum to promote self-regulation among students ?
The research process would likely involve selecting a sample of 6th-grade students from one or more secondary schools and dividing them into two groups – an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group would participate in group activities designed to promote self-regulation, while the control group would not receive any special intervention. The groups would then be compared to see if there are any significant differences in self-regulation skills between them.
Data collection could involve a combination of self-report measures (e.g. questionnaires) and direct observation of student behavior during group activities. The research project could also incorporate interviews or focus groups with students, teachers, and school administrators to gather additional insights on the effectiveness of group activities in promoting self-regulation among students.
The findings of the research project would likely support the notion that group activities can be an effective way of developing self-regulation skills among 6th-grade students at the secondary level. The project could identify specific types of group activities that are particularly effective in promoting self-regulation and provide recommendations for educators and schools on how to incorporate group activities into their curriculum to improve students’ self-regulation skills.
Q.11 How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?
I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such tasks.im feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. When i taught the children then me counsel dictionary and great writers, businessmen and novels .These all things increased my Conflict management also showed them video lesson of some expert and creative writers to teach them. It also helped me to learn new things. This practice also improved my writing skills too.
I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grammar. My work has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other.
The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. Awareness alone won’t help us stop using Conflict management. Awareness after the fact is what I’m talking about here. Starting anything new and trying to create a habit out of it takes work and time. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect.
Q.12 What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
It added a lot of new skills in my teaching .It improved my way of teaching. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of Self-monitoring.
Different kids learn in different ways, and some lessons need unique teaching tools. Good Parents know how to adapt their lesson plan to their students, so that all the kids learn optimally. This trait can take some experience and practice in a classroom setting, so give it time.
Whether you teach high Area chemistry or kindergarten, nothing is a more effective tool than using your imagination to create new and self-regulation ways for your students to learn. You may be inspired by the work of another teacher, mentor or a TV commercial – it doesn’t matter. All that matters is that you take the initiative to find new ways for your kids to learn the material.
Parents could have a hard time without a wide variety of support staff around them. If you feel alone, your Area principal, administrative staff, parent-teacher committee, and more are often available to provide you help. By working as a team, you may have an easier time increasing your students’ ability to learn and have fun.
In this modern, digital age, Parents need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way Parents teach.
This is likely the single most important skill. Kids these days are stubborn, and many lack the inherent respect for authority that we were taught at a young age. Spending a single day in a room full of raucous teenagers is enough to send any human being to the Looney bin, which is why every good teacher needs patience in order to find a way to work with his students and earn their respect.
Sometimes to get the big reward, you may need to take a risk. Being a teacher is about finding a way to get kids to learn, and sometimes these new learning methods can be risky. Stick to it and you’ll soon find that others are following your teaching example.
Q.13 List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual – 6th Edition).
Arnold, M. L., Newman, J. H., Gaddy, B. B., & Dean, C. B. (2005). A look at the condition of rural education research: Setting a direction for future research. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 20(6), 1–24.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117–148.
Bempechat, J. (2004). The motivational benefits of homework: A social-cognitive perspective. Theory Into Practice, 43, 189–196. Boekaerts, M., & Corno, L. (2005). Self-regulation in the classroom: A perspective on assessment and intervention. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54, 199–231
Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987– 2003. Review of Educational Research, 76, 1–62.
Corno, L. (2000). Looking at homework differently. The Elementary School Journal, 100, 529–248.
Plant, E. A., Ericsson, K. A., Hill, L., & Asberg, K. (2005). Why study time does not predict grade point average across college students: Implications of deliberate practice for academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30, 96–116.
Stoeger, H., & Ziegler, A. (2008). Evaluation of a classroom based training to improve self-regulation in time management tasks during homework activities with fourth graders. Metacognition and Learning, 3, 207–230.
Hill, N. E., Degol, J. L., & Rothenberg, W. A. (2016). Enhancing students’ self-regulation and mathematics achievement through small-group tutoring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(1), 16-32.
Voelkl, K. E., Beacham, A. O., Li, C., & Ragan, K. M. (2018). Promoting self-regulation to improve academic achievement among high school students. Journal of School Counseling, 16(15).
Zhou, M., Wang, X., & Zhang, D. (2017). Improving self-regulation and academic achievement through collaborative learning among ninth-grade students. Learning and Individual Differences, 60, 35-42.
Zhang, Y., Jin, C., & Wang, C. (2019). Mindfulness-based intervention improves the self-regulation of ninth-grade students. Journal of Education and Learning, 8(1), 63-72.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–39). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.