Topic: Enhancing global awareness through multicultural literature among grade 8th stude

MANUAL

RESEARCH PROJECT

B.Ed. (1.5 Year)

Course Code: 8613

Name: Areej Fatima

Father name: Waseem Rasool

Registration No: 0000112161

Semester: Autumn 2022

Region: Sargodha

Theme: Developing 21 century skills of students

Sub-theme: Global awareness

Topic: Enhancing global awareness through multicultural literature among grade 8th students

Enhancing global awareness through respecting others among grade 6th students

ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD

Overall background of the participants of the project; area / Area: (socio-economic status, occupation / profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the Area is situated).

This action research was conducted in Govt high school…..

School & Participants Background:

In general the structure of school was huge and lovely. The school had lovely playground and parking. Classes are better in condition. The environment of school was great, better for learning and secure for children. The participants of study were young learner’s (8 class) parents whose children were enrolled in Govt high school. I selected young learner’s (8 class) parents which are considered in total 32 members.

Socio Economic Status:

Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. Examinations of socioeconomic status often reveal inequities in access to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power and control.Most of peoples from this area are Govt. employee but some of them are shopkeeper or work in private offices. Most of parents do not afford children education due to their family expenses and their low income but some parents support their children at higher level in well reputed universities. But due to the lack of higher educational institute and low income of their parents, more than 60% children stop their education after intermediate. Overall the financial status of this area is good.

Occupation & Earning Trend:

Parents with Govt. jobs and small businessman are in a better condition to help and support their children educationally, mentally and profoundly. However, Parents with low income because of expenses and low salaries issues can’t give satisfactory to up level their children education. The control of the Parents in this research from this area is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so good. The children who Parents with government jobs are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction. Due to low earning trend of this area, the children face a great deal of difficulties both at home and school, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom exercises. In present some parents drop their children at different shop for learning work and for earning but today due to free education in Pakistan more than 80% children go to school till then matriculation.

Literacy Rate:

In 2022, Litercy Rate of …sargodha…….The literacy rate for persons 15 years or older in the city is 78.6%.

The current literacy rate of Pakistan is 62.3 which mean that an estimated population of 60 million is illiterate in the country.

Sub-theme: Global awareness

Topic: Enhancing global awareness through multicultural literature among grade 8th students

Q.1 Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution.

Reason for select this specific sub-theme

Global Awareness is the appreciation of the world as an interconnected, interdependent system encompassing political, socioeconomic, and environmental interactions.

Global awareness in the classroom involves teaching students about different nations and cultures, as well as their civic duties and rights both locally and globally. An ability to understand, respect and work well with people from diverse cultures is increasingly important for social and academic success in an interconnected world.

The idea behind global awareness is to create global citizens who are open to those raised in different countries, cultures and religious settings. For teachers, it’s an opportunity to open students’ eyes to how everyday decisions in their own lives can impact the lives of people around the globe.

The world is as big as it ever was, but it certainly can feel smaller—especially to the new generation of students—because of the power of the internet and global communications. What happens in faraway countries can seem as close as what happens across town.

The guiding principle behind global awareness is to create a more peaceful and just society. Doing so requires an understanding of people from other backgrounds and cultures. Teachers can have one of the strongest impacts on young people in achieving that goal.

Reason for select this specific topic

Researcher chooses this topic because Global awareness has become such an important issue that teachers now have the opportunity to learn about it in formal classes.

For example, Fresno Pacific University, which offers hundreds of continuing education and independent studies courses for teachers, has many courses for teachers that incorporate global awareness. They indicate not only the importance of global awareness but its widespread adoption in many different areas of education.

For example, global awareness is a part of the following diverse courses for teachers. In each case, the idea is to support teachers in developing models that teach cultural understanding and global awareness and “promote and model digital citizenship and responsibility.”

Elementary Curriculum on the Web

The STEM course 3D Modeling for Educators

Excel – Ultimate Information Tool

History/Social Science Curriculum on the Web

That’s just a sample. The point is, global awareness, particularly as it relates to web-based learning, is a key factor when teaching students across a wide variety of subjects.

Part of the focus on global awareness springs from the fact that in the past, it hasn’t always been done well in the U.S. A Rand Corporation survey conducted a decade ago found that international corporations felt that U.S. college graduates were “strong technically” but “short-changed” in a cross-cultural experience.

Now, the emphasis is on starting students while they are young in their understanding of the interlocking nature of cultures around the world. While teachers can’t do the job on their own, they certainly can have a strong, positive impact.

These are just some of the educational areas where global awareness can be incorporated.

Reading is one of the best ways to immerse students in another culture. A diverse set of American authors is an important part of this process. Another is incorporating literature that is written by authors from other countries or set in those countries.

Foreign Language Skills

Even if they cannot speak a second language fluently, it’s important for students to develop some skills in at least one language other than English. Learning a second language opens students to see the world from a different point of view.

Knowledge in Comparative Fields

Teaching students in comparative fields such as world history, anthropology, political science, economics, and trade offers them a chance to understand issues that have international implications.

Openness and Positivity

To learn about other cultures, students must have an open mind and a positive attitude. At the very least, students should have a tolerance of other cultures. Better yet, they develop deeper understanding that allows them to both overcome cross-cultural differences and develop empathy and trust for those from other cultures.

Global awareness will continue to gain importance as the world “gets smaller” and more people of diverse cultures migrate around the world. Given that reality, it’s a key area for teachers to build strong skills.

According to Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania, global awarenes1 is understanding global social, cultural, economic, political, and environmental issues, rising global problems such as pandemics, economic recessions, poverty, and immigration. It helps us understand the similarities and differences among people, the effect of globalization, cross- cultural understanding and better partnerships among governmental organizations, educational institutions, and businesses in an effort to solve global issues. Solving global issues requires awareness and collaborative efforts towards global peace, global diversity in life experiences, family situations, age, gender, cognitive ability, ethnicity, race, culture, and religion. In education2, global awareness aims to create global citizens who are open to those coming from different cultures, countries, and religious backgrounds. It involves teaching students about different cultures, their civic rights, and duties locally and globally. The ability to understand, cooperate, respect and work with people from different cultural backgrounds has become important for academic and social success in an interconnected world.

Due to the importance of global awareness in education, a review of the literature showed numerous studies that explored different aspects of global awareness. The first line of research showed the benefits of raising students’ global awareness in language teaching and learning. In this respect, Aubrey (2009) indicated that creating a global cultural

consciousness among second language (L2) students can help bridge the gap between linguistic ability and functional intercultural communication. Zhu (2011) added that the incorporation of culture in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teaching and learning, with a focus on the cultivation of culturally empathic ability develop Chinese students’ intercultural empathy. The integration of content-based, task-based, and communicative language teaching methods resulted in higher levels of awareness of global issues and better ability to analyze problems and apply critical thinking by intermediate students at the Institute of Language Studies, in India. The students were also more effective and

Q.2 What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?

After choosing this theme, I discussed this topic with my teachers, friends and supervisor.

Discussion with Supervisor:

My supervisor pointed out that collaboration is essential for everyone, especially children. There are a lot of benefits gained from collaboration, including that it fosters a positive mood and releases the stress of the day.

Discussion with Teacher:

My teacher told me that developing positive relationships with others is very important for global awareness. The benefits from time spent with friends and family is that they learn to share, compromise and listen, as well as develop conflict resolution skills. Fostering these relationships as a child will also help them maintain relationships in their adult life.

  • Children who rely on global awarenessare often secluded from real life interaction.
  • Using computers and other electronic devices can cause health hazards such as eye strain and other physical problems.
  • The technologies required for full participation can be quite expensive and this can create a gap between the children who have access to the technologies and those who do not have access.

Discussion with Friends:

One of my friend pointed about this subtheme that People have many Social Responsibility, most of which benefit themselves and society. Our Social Responsibility to eat arises out a natural concern to ensure our own survival, whereas the self-regulation for sexual intercourse arises out of a natural concern to pass our genes to the next generation. global awarenessto seek affiliation and to protect ourselves and loved ones from harm also offer examples of basic, fundamental self-regulation that promote individual and collective well-being. Self-monitoring can prevent us from engaging in motivated behaviors. People have self-regulation to survive by eating, but they use Self-monitoring to resist their temptation to eat unhealthy foods.

I concluded that global awarenessis no longer seen as an optional extra; it is becoming an important concern of policy makers and economists. Indeed, the dramatic rise in the number of efforts to measure and monitor the position and lives of children’ in recent years.

Q.3 What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles /websites)?

Since the education of children became a mass phenomenon in the 19th century, the resulting organisation into schools and classrooms implied that pupils receive most of their teaching and learning in some form of grouping. Pedagogic studies that inform the teaching and learning process (e.g., Mortimore, 1999) do not appear to acknowledge the importance of pupil groups; pedagogy, as discussed within the literature, mainly focuses on the teacher–pupil relationship (acknowledging the individual learner), and largely neglects to identify that the majority of children’s classroom time is spent in the presence of peers (Blatchford, Kutnick, Baines, & Galton, 2003).

On the other hand, studies that focus on the frequency and use of naturally occurring pupil groupings in classrooms consistently note that these groupings do not feature as contexts for collaboration that promotes learning – these pupil groups often inhibit classroom learning (Dreeben, 1984, Galton, 1990, Galton et al., 1999).

Another group of studies focused on teaching and learning strategies for expanding global awareness and understanding of cultural sensitivity in students through global consumer exchange (Lopez, Kemp & McKenzie, 2019); short-term study abroad (DeLoach, Kurt &Olitsky, 2015); study abroad, service-learning, community service, and cultural coursework (Welton, 2021); study abroad and literature study as methods of internationalization (Medina &Kiefel, 2021); art, music and politics (Gertsenzon, 2021); incorporating cultural elements in English language teaching materials (Nagy, 2018); integrating materials based on global issues into the development of professional soft and hard skills (Diachkova, Sazhko, Shevchenko &Syzenko, 2021); articles, books, seminars, lectures and workshops (Yang, 2010); reading a variety of authentic texts, viewing movie and video clips, group discussions, and working on group projects (Tseng, 2017); reading multicultural short stories in EFL classes (Tural&Cubukcu, 2021; Al-Jarf, 2016; Al- Jarf, 2015); virtual exchange in which students are connected with students from different lingua-cultural backgrounds over extended periods of time via digital communication technologies (Krengel, 2021; Al-Jarf, 2020b; Al-Jarf, 2006a; Al-Jarf, 2006b; Al-Jarf, 2006c); combining content-based, task-based and communicative language teaching methods (Omidvar&Sukumar, 2013; Al-Jarf, 2021f; Al-Jarf, 2005b); multicultural counseling training (Zhang, Cui & Zhang, 2021); using an ethnographic teaching methodology (Aubrey, 2009); intercultural teaching with films (Liu, 2020); use of a variety of technologies such as online courses, mobile apps, online discussion forums, blogs, web-conferencing software such as Elluminate, online videos, mind-mapping software, and online SMS (Jiang, Soon & Li, 2021; Al-Jarf, 2022a; Al-Jarf, 2022b; Al-Jarf, 2021b; Al-Jarf, 2021d; Al-Jarf, 2021i; Al-Jarf, 2020c; Al-Jarf, 2014a; Al-Jarf, 2014b; Al-Jarf, 2012a; Al-Jarf, 2012b; Al-Jarf, 2006a; Al-Jarf, 2006b; Al-Jarf, 2006c; Al-Jarf, 2005a).

Despite the importance of integrating cultural issues and materials in language learning, there is still a need for creating global and intercultural awareness among students in numerous countries. Aubrey (2009) pointed out that there is a need to create a cultural awareness among EFL students in Japan. In China, Liu (2020) called for the integration of intercultural education in EFL and revealed the urgent need for research on how teachers can be equipped with intercultural teaching skills to be able to carry out activities that will help enhance students’ intercultural communicative competence. Cultural background knowledge deficiency strongly affects English learning. Lack of cultural awareness and insufficient cultural background knowledge directly obstruct EFL college students’ learning competence in English (Wang, 2018).

Q.4 What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions /description from literature.

Developing 21st Century skills in students

Previously, students worked on developing specific skill sets and understanding domain areas that they would need for their future careers. Today’s students, however, will need a set of transferable skills that can be applied in nearly every setting in order to succeed. Many educational experts define 21st-century skills as competencies that must be mastered to collaborate effectively and problem solve in a global economy. Some examples of 21st-century skills include critical thinking, creativity, communication, adaptability, digital literacy and cross-cultural understanding.

GLOBAL AWARENESS

Global awareness in the classroom involves teaching students about different nations and cultures, as well as their civic duties and rights both locally and globally. An ability to understand, respect and work well with people from diverse cultures is increasingly important for social and academic success in an interconnected world.

The idea behind global awareness is to create global citizens who are open to those raised in different countries, cultures and religious settings. For teachers, it’s an opportunity to open students’ eyes to how everyday decisions in their own lives can impact the lives of people around the globe.

Multicultural literature

Multiculturalism, the view that cultures, races, and ethnicities, particularly those of minority groups, deserve special acknowledgment of their differences within a dominant political culture.

Q.5 What did you want to achieve in this research project?

Objective / purpose of the study:

The purpose of this action research will be enhancing global awareness through multicultural literature among grade 8th students

Objective of this research are:

  1. To enhanceglobal awareness through multicultural literature among grade 8th students.
  2. To explore global awareness through multicultural literature among grade 8th students.
  3. To discover the effect of global awareness through multicultural discussion.

Research Question:

  • How to enhanceglobal awareness through multicultural literature among grade 8th?
  • How effect of enhancing global awareness through multicultural literature among grade 8th students?
  • Which level of goal is best used for global awareness through multicultural discussion?

Q.6 Who were the participants in your project?

The targeted population was students enrolled in young learners of Govt high school. However, in these observations, twenty-five (25) parents, taking a related course, were selected in a School as a sample while considering the research control and validity of thisstudy. This sample included parents of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the student’s parents in young learner’s class. The Enhancing collaboration through group activities among grade 6 was developed on the basis of a series of research regarding identification and improvement for young learner’s class students. This curriculum purported to enhancestudents’ Self-monitoring and depositions through speculating about academic learning and life issue discussion.

Q.7 How did you try to solve the problem?

Method of the study:

The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. Thesocial wonder under investigation was the Enhancing collaboration through group activities among grade 6. Survey,interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the dataknowledge important to respond to the research questions.

Data Collection:

The term survey is normally used on the other hand with audit. It is ordinary and straightforward strategy fordata amassing, in actuality, look at. Moreover, it is snappiest, most affordable, private method for social affairdata from respondents. The data was accumulated through efficient research gadget. So in suchsort inspects, it is indispensable during progress of estimation gadget for quality data to recollect all points of view. Emotional/Quantitative system was used to get critical and cautious information. Information wasassembled through survey including simply close completed request in regard to investigate goals. The close bycompleted overview was made for data gathering.

Sampling:

The entire group from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students ofGovt high School. It was quite convenient for me, being a resident of Govt high School to accumulatequality data from chosen city and Area.Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents thewhole population.The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample the students ofGovt high School. Andtheir teacher was selected for this class based action research.

Ethical Consideration:

From the inception of this research I was extremely particular to carry out an ethical inquiry and therefore gave serious thought to all ethical aspects this study would entail. As teacher-researchers, my young learner’s class responsibility was to my students. An action research is considered ‘ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and Area governing body. Permission was sought from Area head. Permission was granted by the Education Department for this study to take place at the Area where I was teaching. The rights of the participants (young learner’s class students) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.

Q.8 What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrumentdeveloped?

Research Instrument:

Observation tools were used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of observations were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The observation was prepared to attain study objectives.

Quantitative research

Quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using performing based methods (in particular statistics). Quantitative data contains closed ended information such as that found on attitude behavior and performance instruments .In this study the children have been given a questionnaire to find out Using social responsibility through support honesty behaviorin young children and this observation has been derived and analyzed in terms of numerical data. This is why the research falls under quantitative category.

Observation
Anobservation is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondent’s statistical society. Usually a observationconsists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format .A distinction made between open ended and closed ended questions .an open ended question ask the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed ended question has the respondent pick an answer from given number of options.

Q.9 What were the findings and conclusion?

I used scale observations to get students’ responsestowards the use for the improvement of enhancing global awareness through multicultural literature among grade 8th students

Completing shared tasks in a pair or group, e.g. matching, sorting, ranking

Activities or games with a competitive element, e.g. bingo

Examples of activities

Collaborative activities can be used for any age-range and in any subject. EAL learners at any stage of language development can take part, particularly if those who are New to English are grouped with supportive peers. Here are some examples:

1. Group or pair discussion:

There are a range of pair or group discussions, for example:

Listening triangles: learners work together in groups of three: a speaker, a questioner and a note-taker.

The speaker explains the topic (or expresses their opinion on an issue) as directed by the teacher

The questioner listens carefully and asks for clarification or further detail

The note-taker observes this process and provides feedback to both speaker and questioner

Talk partners: Learners are paired for short discussion activities. Pairs can be selected, chosen randomly or regularly switched. It may be useful to establish ground rules and model some appropriate question types and responses.

Think-Pair-Share: Learners prepare a response to a text or prepare a piece of work and then explain their ideas to a partner. After the pairs have discussed the issue, they join with another pair, share views and emerge with a group conclusion or perspective.

Snowballing: Learners discuss something or investigate an issue in pairs. The pairs then join another pair to form a group and share their findings.  The small groups then join together to make a larger group: 2 →4 →8 →16 → whole-class.

2. Working on shared tasks, e.g. matching, sorting, ranking:

Working collaboratively on a task encourages use of the vocabulary of the curriculum area, and at the same time encourages use of the language of making suggestions, justifying opinions, agreeing and disagreeing, etc. It also gives practice in listening. Many of the resources on this website have images that can be made into flashcards which can be used for matching, sorting or ranking. For example, in A Balanced Diet learners are asked to sort cards with different foods on into groups according to their nutrient content.

3. Games and activities with a competitive element:

Games can be very effective in motivating learners, and in revising or consolidating curriculum content. They also practise the language of turn-taking and negotiating. Bingo is a popular game included in several of the resources on this site, e.g. food bingo. A quick noughts and crosses game can be produced for any topic on a whiteboard, i.e. a 3×3 grid with answers in each square. Split the class into two teams, and teams discuss possible questions to match the answers. There are likely to be a range of possible correct questions. In this example a question to which the correct answer is ‘protein’ could be ‘What do you find in fish, nuts and meat?’ or ‘What do we need to build and repair tissue?’

Q.10

Summary of the Project

Examining the term multi-, cultural-, and ism-: multi- meaning to have multiple, many, or more than one; cultural- meaning the different indicators of a group of people through their values, beliefs, customs, religion, language, history, art, socioeconomic status, social institutions, achievements of a particular nation, people, or other social groups; and ism- is the suffix meaning a distinctive doctrine, theory, system, or practice. Together it means the practice of multiple cultures – or the way society deals with cultural diversity on multiple levels (Longley, 2020). Regarding education, culture and education are intertwined as they impact and value one another. It is crucial to teach multiculturalism in the classroom from earlier ages as studies show that children start creating biases regarding race by the age of four, and when they are twelve, they become set in their beliefs, making it harder to change (Dickinson, 2020). Each year, classrooms are becoming more diverse and as teachers, we need to embrace diversity and foster a culturally inclusive classroom focusing on equality, justice, and equity.

To implement a multicultural classroom, educators need to be aware of biases; value life experiences; understand learning styles; and assign multicultural projects (American University, 2020). There are four main points to creating a multicultural education which are done through: contributions – needing a deeper understanding of cultural differences to reshape curriculum and pedagogy; additive – educators branch out and teach what is missing from mainstream norm or the perspectives that are missing; transformative – norms are shaped by many intersections which allows teachers to reflect how the lessons, activities and conversations are framed; and decision-making/social action – support and guide children to develop their comprehension of equity and justice and take action (National Association for Multicultural Education). The benefits of incorporating a multicultural education are that people learn value in all cultures. As teachers, we need to ensure that we do not neglect a major part of a student’s identity, especially if it has been historically ignored or marginalized (Walden University). The more diversity is promoted and focuses on people’s similarities with different groups, it promotes positivity, whereas only looking at people’s differences creates alienation and othering, promoting negativity and hate. Students and their experiences should be valued and discussed, enabling others to address multiple ways of thinking or open themselves to different perspectives, eventually becoming inclusive adults. Throughout this paper, we will examine the different levels of multiculturalism, such as socioeconomic status, language, religion, gender, and values, and how these practices are applied in the classroom, what opportunities are presented to address concerns, what challenges can occur when discussing these topics, and what strategies can be used to overcome these challenges.

Q.11 How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?

I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such tasks.im feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. When i taught the children then me counsel dictionary and great writers, businessmen and novels .These all things increased my Conflict management also showed them video lesson of some expert and creative writers to teach them. It also helped me to learn new things. This practice also improved my writing skills too.

I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grammar. My work has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other.

The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. Awareness alone won’t help us stop using Conflict management. Awareness after the fact is what I’m talking about here. Starting anything new and trying to create a habit out of it takes work and time. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect.

Q.12 What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

It added a lot of new skills in my teaching .It improved my way of teaching. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of Self-monitoring.

Adaptability

Different kids learn in different ways, and some lessons need unique teaching tools. Good Parents know how to adapt their lesson plan to their students, so that all the kids learn optimally. This trait can take some experience and practice in a classroom setting, so give it time.

Imagination

Whether you teach high Area chemistry or kindergarten, nothing is a more effective tool than using your imagination to create new and self-regulation ways for your students to learn. You may be inspired by the work of another teacher, mentor or a TV commercial – it doesn’t matter. All that matters is that you take the initiative to find new ways for your kids to learn the material.

Teamwork

Parents could have a hard time without a wide variety of support staff around them. If you feel alone, your Area principal, administrative staff, parent-teacher committee, and more are often available to provide you help. By working as a team, you may have an easier time increasing your students’ ability to learn and have fun.

Professional Development:

In this modern, digital age, Parents need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way Parents teach.

Patience

This is likely the single most important skill. Kids these days are stubborn, and many lack the inherent respect for authority that we were taught at a young age. Spending a single day in a room full of raucous teenagers is enough to send any human being to the Looney bin, which is why every good teacher needs patience in order to find a way to work with his students and earn their respect.

Risk Taking

Sometimes to get the big reward, you may need to take a risk. Being a teacher is about finding a way to get kids to learn, and sometimes these new learning methods can be risky. Stick to it and you’ll soon find that others are following your teaching example.

Q.13

List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual – 6th Edition). (05 marks)

  • Bánhegyi, M., &Fajt, B. (2023). Improving university students’ cooperation skills through portfolio projects: A pilot study. Journal of Adult Learning, Knowledge and Innovation.
  • Alam, A., &Mohanty, A. (2023). Evaluation of Software Engineering Virtual Laboratory in Determining Undergraduate Students’ Conceptual Understanding: A Blended Learning Model Using Collaborative-Creative Virtual Learning Environment Employing Critical Pedagogy. In Sentiment Analysis and Deep Learning: Proceedings of ICSADL 2022 (pp. 875-899). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.
  • A-Jarf, R. (2007). Integrating global culture in EFL college materials. 7th Annual English Language Teaching Conference. Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. April 18-19.
  • Al-Jarf, R. (2005a). Connecting students across universities in Saudi Arabia. 4th Asia CALL Conference. ERIC ED497940.
  • Al-Jarf, R. (2006b). Impact of online instruction on EFL students’ cultural awareness. ERIC ED497400.
  • Al-Jarf, R. (2012a). Mobile technology and student autonomy in oral skill acquisition. In Javier E. Díaz Vera’s Left to My Own Devices: Innovation and Leadership in English Language Teaching. 105-129. Brill. DOI: 10.1163/9781780526478_007
  • Al-Jarf, R. (2015). Enhancing reading and speaking skills in EFL through multicultural children’s short stories. 7th International Conference, Building Cultural Bridges (ICBCB) titled: Integrating Languages, Linguistics, Literature, Translation, and Journalism into Education.SuleymanDemirelUniversity, Almaty, Kazakhstan. April 23-24. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3848464. ERIC ED610158.
  • Al-Jarf, R. (2020a). A model for a global education course for Saudi junior and senior high schools. Eurasian Arabic Studies, 11, 76-97. DOI: 10.26907/2619-1261
  • Al-Jarf, R. (2021g). Integrating participation goals in writing activities for EFL college students. Journal for Research Scholars and Professionals of English Language Teaching (JRSP-ELT), 23(5). ERIC ED613141. https://www.jrspelt.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/R. -Writing-Activities.pdf
  • Al-Jarf, R. (2021h). Mobile audiobooks, listening comprehension and EFL college students. International Journal of Research – GRANTHAALAYAH, 9(4), 410-423. DOI: 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i4.2021.3868. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3841694
  • Al-Jarf, R. (2021i). Teaching reading to EFL freshman students with mind-mapping software. Journal for Research Scholars and Professionals of English Language Teaching (JRSP-ELT), 24(5), 1-12. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3825817
  • Al-Jarf, R. (2003a). Global themes in Singaporean secondary social studies textbooks. Curriculum Development Conference Titled: Principles and Starting Points. Vol. 2, pp. 921-950. College of Education, King Saud University.
  • Al-Jarf, R. (2003b). The global dimension in Saudi history textbooks for grades 4-12. Curriculum Development: Principles and Starting Points Conference, May 13-14. Vol I, 101-132. College of Education, King Saud University. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

 

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