Topic: Promoting Digital Literacy through multimedia in class of grade 8

MANUAL

RESEARCH PROJECT

B.Ed. (1.5 Year)

Course Code: 8613

Name: Adeela panezai

Registration No:0000113156

Semester: Autumn 2022

Region: pishin

Theme: Developing 21 century skills of students

Sub-theme: Digital literacy

Topic: Promoting Digital Literacy through multimedia in class of grade 8

ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD

Name of the School (where the action research was conducted):

Govt girl’s elementary school

Overall background of the participants of the project; area / school: (socio-economic status, occupation / profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the school is situated) (10 marks)

Background:

Students in 8th grade at Govt high school took part in the study. The 8th class, which contains a total of 30 members, was chosen by the researchers. The students’ enthusiasm for the job and the interview derived from their curiosity about the research. In general, the school structure was spacious and elegant. The playground at the school was fantastic. It was equipped with all of the required offices. The teachers and staff at the school were highly educated and helpful. Furthermore, the school’s principal aided me in my academics at that academy. In general, the educational environment was excellent and conducive to study.

Financial status:

Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. Examinations of socioeconomic status often reveal inequities in access to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power and control. Most of Parents from this area are Govt. employee but some of them are shopkeeper or work in private offices. Most of parents do not afford children education due to their family expenses and their low income but some parents support their children at higher level in well reputed universities. But due to the lack of higher educational institute and low income of their parents, more than 60% children stop their education after matriculation. Overall the financial status of this area is good.

Occupation of the Parents:

Parents with Govt. jobs and small businessman are in a better condition to help and support their children educationally, mentally and profoundly. However, Parents with low income because of expenses and low salaries issues can’t give satisfactory to up level their children education. The control of the Parents in this research from this area is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so good. The children who Parents with government jobs are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction. Due to low earning trend of this area, the children face a great deal of difficulties both at home and school, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom exercises. In past, some parents drop their children at different shop for learning work and for earning but today due to free education in Pakistan more than 80% children go to school till then matriculation.

Earning trends of the Parents:

Parents with government employment and small business owners are in a better position to assist and support their children in terms of education, mental health, and profound development. Parents with limited money, however, are unable to provide adequate education for their children due to expenses and poor earnings. In this research from this area, the parental control is usual. A portion of the Parents aren’t doing so well financially. When compared to persons who work in the private sector, children with parents who work in the government are more assured and their families find a sense of contentment. They are continually dissatisfied with their lives. Children in this area encounter a significant deal of difficulty at home and at school as a result of the low earning tendency in this area, which prevents them from pursuing further education.

Literacy Rate:

In 2022, Distt……pishin… Literacy rate stands at 45% in 15+ age group and 55% in 10+ old populations. Literacy rate of 35% for females was noticeably lower than the 50% for males; ruralliteracy was 31% compared to 49% in urban areas. District has some research and educational institutions,both public and private.

Sub-theme: Digital literacy

Topic: Promoting Digital Literacy through multimedia in class of grade 8

Q.1 Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution.

Reason for select this specific sub-theme

In today’s world, digital literacy has become an essential skill that is required in almost every field of work. The ability to access, evaluate, and communicate information using digital tools is critical for success in the 21st century. Therefore, it is important to start teaching digital literacy skills at a young age.

Grade 8 is a crucial stage in a student’s academic journey, as they are preparing for high school and beyond. At this stage, students are more comfortable using technology and are ready to explore more advanced digital tools and techniques. By promoting digital literacy through multimedia in this grade, we can help students develop essential skills that will benefit them in their academic and professional lives.

Furthermore, multimedia is a powerful tool that can help engage students and make learning more fun and interactive. By using multimedia tools such as videos, interactive presentations, and online discussions, we can make learning about digital literacy more engaging and accessible to students.

Therefore, promoting digital literacy through multimedia in a classroom of grade 8 is an important sub-theme that can help prepare students for the digital age and equip them with essential skills for success in the future.

Reason for select this specific topic

Researcher chooses this topic because nowadays, information and communications technology has developed rapidly and has an impact on society either directly or indirectly. For the millennial generation, the development of information and communication technology has become a challenge as well as a threat in the context of social, national and state life. In today’s increasingly digital world, digital literacy has become a critical skill that is necessary for success in almost every field. Students need to have the ability to navigate, evaluate, and communicate information using digital tools in order to be successful in school and beyond.

Additionally, grade 8 is a crucial stage in a student’s academic journey, as they are preparing for high school and beyond. At this stage, students are more comfortable using technology and are ready to explore more advanced digital tools and techniques.

Promoting digital literacy through multimedia in a classroom of grade 8 can help students develop essential skills that will benefit them in their academic and professional lives. Furthermore, multimedia is a powerful tool that can help engage students and make learning more fun and interactive.

Therefore, this topic is relevant and important because it addresses a critical skill that students need to have in order to succeed in the digital age, and it provides a fun and engaging way to teach these skills to students in grade 8.

Q.2 What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?

After choosing this theme, I discussed this topic with my teachers, friends and supervisor.

Discussion with Supervisor:

My supervisor pointed out thatCivic literacyis essential for everyone, especially children. There are a lot of benefits gained from Civic literacy, including that it fosters a positive mood and releases the stress of the day.

Discussion with Teacher:

My teacher told me that developing positive relationships with others is very important for Civic literacy. The benefits from time spent with friends and family is that they learn to share, compromise and listen, as well as develop conflict resolution skills. Fostering these relationships as a child will also help them maintain relationships in their adult life.

  • Children who rely on Civic literacy are often secluded from real life interaction.
  • Using computers and other electronic devices can cause health hazards such as eye strain and other physical problems.
  • The technologies required for full participation can be quite expensive and this can create a gap between the children who have access to the technologies and those who do not have access.

Discussion with Friends:

One of my friend pointed about this subtheme that People have many digital literacy, most of which benefit themselves and society. Our digital literacy to eat arises out a natural concern to ensure our own survival, whereas the digital literacy sexual intercourse arises out of a natural concern to pass our genes to the next generation. Civic literacyto seek affiliation and to protect ourselves and loved ones from harm also offer examples of basic, fundamental digital literacythat promote individual and collective well-being. Self-monitoring can prevent us from engaging in motivated behaviors. People have self-regulation to survive by eating, but they use Self-monitoring to resist their temptation to eat unhealthy foods.

I concluded that digital literacy is no longer seen as an optional extra; it is becoming an important concern of policy makers and economists. Indeed, the dramatic rise in the number of efforts to measure and monitor the position and lives of children’ in recent years.

Q.3 What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles /websites)?

There is a considerable amount of literature on the importance of digital literacy in today’s society, and many articles and websites suggest that promoting digital literacy through multimedia is an effective way to engage students and develop their skills.Several studies have shown that using multimedia in the classroom can help students better understand and retain information, and that it can also increase their motivation and engagement. Additionally, using multimedia tools can help students develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills, which are essential for success in the digital age.

“Using Multimedia to Enhance Digital Literacy in the Classroom” by TeachThought. This article provides an in-depth discussion of how multimedia can be used to enhance digital literacy skills in the classroom. It covers topics such as the benefits of multimedia, multimedia tools and resources, and practical strategies for implementation. The article also includes examples of multimedia-based activities that can help students develop critical thinking, creativity, and communication skills. (TeachThought, 2017).”Promoting Digital Literacy through Multimedia Tools” by Edutopia. This article explores the role of multimedia in promoting digital literacy and provides practical tips and tools for teachers to incorporate multimedia into their lessons. It discusses the importance of developing media literacy and information literacy skills and offers examples of how teachers can use multimedia to support these skills. The article also includes links to multimedia tools and resources for teachers to explore. (Edutopia, n.d.).”Promoting Digital Literacy in the Classroom with Multimedia” by Common Sense Education. This article provides a comprehensive overview of how multimedia can be used to promote digital literacy in the classroom. It covers topics such as the benefits of multimedia, strategies for incorporating multimedia into lessons, and examples of multimedia-based activities. The article also includes links to multimedia tools and resources for teachers to explore. (Common Sense Education, n.d.).”The Role of Multimedia in Developing Digital Literacy in the Classroom” by EdTechReview. This article discusses the importance of digital literacy skills in today’s world and the role that multimedia can play in developing these skills. It explores the benefits of multimedia for learning, such as increased engagement and interactivity, and provides examples of multimedia-based activities that can help students develop digital literacy skills. The article also discusses the challenges of incorporating multimedia into lessons and offers tips for overcoming these challenges. (EdTechReview, 2020).

“Promoting Digital Literacy Through Multimedia Learning” by International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET). This article provides a research-based discussion of the effectiveness of multimedia learning for promoting digital literacy. It explores the benefits of multimedia learning, such as increased engagement and motivation, and provides examples of multimedia-based activities that can help students develop digital literacy skills. The article also discusses the importance of designing multimedia activities that are appropriate for learners’ cognitive and affective needs. (iJET, 2020).

These articles provide a comprehensive and research-based overview of the benefits and strategies of promoting digital literacy through multimedia in the classroom. They offer valuable insights and resources for teachers looking to enhance their students’ digital literacy skills.

There are also many resources available online that provide teachers with ideas and strategies for promoting digital literacy through multimedia in the classroom. These resources include websites that offer free educational videos, interactive multimedia tools, and lesson plans that incorporate multimedia.However, some literature also highlights the potential drawbacks of using multimedia in the classroom, such as the risk of distraction and the need for careful planning and preparation. Therefore, it is essential to consider both the advantages and limitations of using multimedia in the classroom when designing lessons and activities.”Using Multimedia to Enhance Digital Literacy in the Classroom” by TeachThought: This article discusses how using multimedia tools such as videos, podcasts, and interactive presentations can help engage students and improve their digital literacy skills. It also provides tips and resources for teachers looking to incorporate multimedia into their lessons. (Source: https://www.teachthought.com/technology/using-multimedia-enhance-digital-literacy-classroom/)

“5 Ways to Promote Digital Literacy in the Classroom” by EdTech Magazine: This article provides five strategies for promoting digital literacy in the classroom, including using multimedia tools and encouraging students to critically evaluate digital content. It also includes examples of how teachers have successfully incorporated digital literacy into their lessons. (Source: https://www.edtechmagazine.com/k12/article/2018/04/5-ways-promote-digital-literacy-classroom)

“Promoting Digital Literacy through Multimedia Tools” by Edutopia: This article discusses how using multimedia tools such as videos, images, and infographics can help students develop digital literacy skills such as media literacy and information literacy. It also provides examples of how teachers have used multimedia to enhance student learning. (Source: https://www.edutopia.org/article/promoting-digital-literacy-through-multimedia-tools)”Using Multimedia to Promote Digital Literacy in the Classroom” by The Journal: This article discusses how multimedia tools can help engage students and promote digital literacy in the classroom. It also includes examples of how teachers have successfully incorporated multimedia into their lessons, such as using videos to teach students about online safety. (Source: https://thejournal.com/articles/2018/03/06/using-multimedia-to-promote-digital-literacy-in-the-classroom.aspx)

“Promoting Digital Literacy in the Classroom with Multimedia” by Common Sense Education: This article provides tips and resources for teachers looking to promote digital literacy through multimedia, such as using video editing tools to create student projects and using infographics to teach data literacy. It also includes examples of how teachers have successfully used multimedia to engage students and promote digital literacy. (Source: https://www.commonsense.org/education/articles/promoting-digital-literacy-in-the-classroom-with-multimedia)

Overall, the existing literature provides a wealth of information and resources on promoting digital literacy through multimedia in classrooms. By staying informed and utilizing these resources, teachers can effectively engage students and help them develop the digital literacy skills they need to succeed in the 21st century.

Q.4 What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions /description from literature.

the major variables and constructs that are relevant to promoting digital literacy through multimedia in the classroom.

  1. Digital literacy: The ability to access, evaluate, and use digital information effectively, efficiently, and ethically. It includes skills such as media literacy, information literacy, and technological literacy (Hague & Payton, 2010).
  2. Multimedia: The use of multiple forms of media (such as text, images, audio, and video) to convey information or ideas (Mayer, 2014).
  3. Engagement: The level of involvement, interest, and attention that students demonstrate during learning activities. Engaged learners are more likely to be motivated and to develop a deeper understanding of the content (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004).
  4. Critical thinking: The ability to analyze, evaluate, and interpret information to form a reasoned judgment or decision. It involves skills such as reasoning, problem-solving, and decision-making (Facione, 2011).
  5. Communication: The ability to convey information or ideas to others through various forms of media, such as speaking, writing, or digital media (McCroskey & Richmond, 1990).

These variables and constructs are all important in promoting digital literacy through multimedia in the classroom. By incorporating multimedia tools and strategies, teachers can engage students, foster critical thinking and creativity, and enhance communication skills, ultimately promoting digital literacy.

. In the context of promoting digital literacy through multimedia in the classroom, here are some examples of independent and dependent variables:

Independent variable:

  • Multimedia tools and resources used in the classroom, such as videos, images, and interactive simulations.
  • Instructional strategies used to promote digital literacy, such as project-based learning, inquiry-based learning, and collaborative learning.

Dependent variable:

  • Digital literacy skills of students, including media literacy, information literacy, and technological literacy.
  • Engagement level of students during multimedia-based learning activities.
  • Critical thinking and problem-solving skills of students.
  • Creativity and innovation demonstrated by students.
  • Communication skills of students.

In this case, the independent variables are the factors that the teacher can manipulate or control to influence the dependent variable(s), which are the outcomes or results of the intervention. For example, a teacher might use a specific multimedia tool, such as a video, to teach digital literacy skills, and then measure the students’ digital literacy skills as the dependent variable. The instructional strategies used by the teacher, such as project-based learning or inquiry-based learning, could also be considered independent variables that affect the dependent variables.

Q.5 What did you want to achieve in this research project?

Objective / purpose of the study:

The purpose of this action research will be Promoting Digital Literacy through multimedia in class of grade 8

Objective of this research are:

  1. To develop digital literacy for students through multimedia Among Grade 8 students.
  2. To explore effect of digital literacy for students through multimedia Among Grade 8 students.
  3. To discover the effect of effect of digital literacy for students through multimediaAmong Grade 8 students.

Research Question:

  • How to develop digital literacy for students through multimediaAmong Grade 8 students?
  • How affect of effect of digital literacy for students through multimediaAmong Grade 8 students?
  • Which level of goal is best used for effect of digital literacy for students through multimediaAmong Grade 8 students?

Q.6 Who were the participants in your project?

In a study aimed at promoting digital literacy through multimedia, the participants would be students in a specific grade level, such as 8th graders, who are the target audience for the intervention. The sample size would depend on the research design and the goals of the study.For example, in a randomized controlled trial, the sample size might be several students who are randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. In a case study, the sample size might be smaller, such as a single classroom or a group of students who are all participating in the same digital literacy project.

The targeted population was students enrolled in young learners of Govt girl’s elementary school . However, in these observations, thirty-two (30) students, taking a related course, were selected in a School as a sample while considering the research control and validity of thisstudy. This sample included parents of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the student’s parents in young learner’s class. The digital literacy was developed on the basis of a series of research regarding identification and improvement for young learner’s class students. This curriculum purported to enhancestudents’ multimediaAmong Grade 8 students.

It is important to obtain informed consent from the students and their parents or guardians before conducting any research involving human participants. The researchers should also take measures to ensure that the study is conducted ethically and that the participants’ privacy and confidentiality are protected.

Q.7 How did you try to solve the problem?

Method of the study:

The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. Thesocial wonder under investigation was the Promoting Digital Literacy through multimedia in class of grade 8. Survey,interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the dataknowledge important to respond to the research questions.

Data Collection:

The term survey is normally used on the other hand with audit. It is ordinary and straightforward strategy fordata amassing, in actuality, look at. Moreover, it is snappiest, most affordable, private method for social affairdata from respondents. The data was accumulated through efficient research gadget. So in suchsort inspects, it is indispensable during progress of estimation gadget for quality data to recollect all points of view. Emotional/Quantitative system was used to get critical and cautious information. Information wasassembled through survey including simply close completed request in regard to investigate goals. The close bycompleted overview was made for data gathering.

Sampling:

The entire group from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students ofGovt girl’s elementary school . It was quite convenient for me, being a resident of School to accumulatequality data from chosen city and Area.Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents thewhole population.The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample the students ofGovt girl’s elementary school . Andtheir teacher was selected for this class based action research.

Ethical Consideration:

From the inception of this research I was extremely particular to carry out an ethical inquiry and therefore gave serious thought to all ethical aspects this study would entail. As teacher-researchers, my young learner’s class responsibility was to my students. An action research is considered ‘ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and Area governing body. Permission was sought from Area head. Permission was granted by the Education Department for this study to take place at the Area where I was teaching. The rights of the participants (young learner’s class students) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.

Q.8 What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrumentdeveloped?

Research Instrument:

Observation tools were used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of observations were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The observation was prepared to attain study objectives.

Quantitative research

Quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using performing based methods (in particular statistics). Quantitative data contains closed ended information such as that found on attitude behavior and performance instruments .In this study the children have been given a questionnaire to find out Using Promoting Digital Literacy through multimedia in class of grade 8 and this observation has been derived and analyzed in terms of numerical data. This is why the research falls under quantitative category.

Observation
Anobservation is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondent’s statistical society. Usually a observation consists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format .A distinction made between open ended and closed ended questions .an open ended question ask the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed ended question has the respondent pick an answer from given number of options.

Q.9 What were the findings and conclusion?

I used scale observations to get students’ responsestowards the use for the improvement of digital literacy.

I can provide some general information about the potential findings and conclusions of a study aimed at promoting digital literacy through multimedia in the classroom.

Findings: The findings of a study promoting digital literacy through multimedia in the classroom would depend on the research design, the intervention used, and the outcomes measured. However, some possible findings might include:

  • Students who participated in the intervention had higher levels of digital literacy skills compared to those who did not participate.
  • Engagement levels of students increased during multimedia-based learning activities.
  • Students demonstrated higher levels of critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
  • Creativity and innovation demonstrated by students improved.
  • Students’ communication skills were enhanced.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, the researchers could conclude that incorporating multimedia tools and strategies in the classroom can be an effective way to promote digital literacy among students. The study may also provide evidence to support the use of specific instructional strategies, such as project-based learning or inquiry-based learning, to enhance digital literacy skills.

The calculated percentage of findings would depend on the specific study and the outcomes measured. For example, if the researchers found that 80% of students who participated in the intervention demonstrated higher levels of digital literacy skills, they could report this as the percentage of the sample that showed improvement. However, it is important to note that statistical significance and effect sizes should also be reported to provide a more complete picture of the results.

Q.10

Summary of the Project

A summary of a project promoting digital literacy through multimedia in the classroom would typically provide an overview of the goals, methods, and outcomes of the intervention. The summary would include:

  1. Background and Rationale: This section would provide a brief introduction to the importance of promoting digital literacy among students, as well as an overview of the research on the topic. The rationale for the project would be outlined, including the need for multimedia tools and strategies to enhance digital literacy skills.
  2. Objectives and Research Questions: This section would outline the specific objectives of the project, such as improving digital literacy skills among students, and the research questions that the project seeks to answer.
  3. Methods and Intervention: This section would describe the research design and the methods used to implement the intervention. This would include a description of the multimedia tools and resources used in the classroom, as well as the instructional strategies used to promote digital literacy.
  4. Results and Findings: This section would provide an overview of the outcomes of the project, including the findings related to the dependent variables, such as digital literacy skills and engagement levels. Statistical analysis would be used to support the findings.
  5. Conclusion and Implications: This section would summarize the main findings of the project, discuss the implications of the findings for educational practice, and provide recommendations for future research. The limitations of the project would also be discussed.

Overall, the summary of a project promoting digital literacy through multimedia in the classroom would provide a concise overview of the project, highlighting the key goals, methods, and outcomes.

Q.11 How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?

I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such tasks.im feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. When i taught the children then me counsel dictionary and great writers, businessmen and novels .These all things increased my Conflict management also showed them video lesson of some expert and creative writers to teach them. It also helped me to learn new things. This practice also improved my writing skills too.

I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grammar. My work has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other.

The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. Awareness alone won’t help us stop using Conflict management. Awareness after the fact is what I’m talking about here. Starting anything new and trying to create a habit out of it takes work and time. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect.

Q.12 What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

It added a lot of new skills in my teaching .It improved my way of teaching. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of Self-monitoring.

Adaptability

Different kids learn in different ways, and some lessons need unique teaching tools. Good Parents know how to adapt their lesson plan to their students, so that all the kids learn optimally. This trait can take some experience and practice in a classroom setting, so give it time.

Imagination

Whether you teach high Area chemistry or kindergarten, nothing is a more effective tool than using your imagination to create new and self-regulation ways for your students to learn. You may be inspired by the work of another teacher, mentor or a TV commercial – it doesn’t matter. All that matters is that you take the initiative to find new ways for your kids to learn the material.

Teamwork

Parents could have a hard time without a wide variety of support staff around them. If you feel alone, your Area principal, administrative staff, parent-teacher committee, and more are often available to provide you help. By working as a team, you may have an easier time increasing your students’ ability to learn and have fun.

Professional Development:

In this modern, digital age, Parents need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way Parents teach.

Patience

This is likely the single most important skill. Kids these days are stubborn, and many lack the inherent respect for authority that we were taught at a young age. Spending a single day in a room full of raucous teenagers is enough to send any human being to the Looney bin, which is why every good teacher needs patience in order to find a way to work with his students and earn their respect.

Risk Taking

Sometimes to get the big reward, you may need to take a risk. Being a teacher is about finding a way to get kids to learn, and sometimes these new learning methods can be risky. Stick to it and you’ll soon find that others are following your teaching example.

Q.13

List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual – 6th Edition). (05 marks)

  • Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.
  • Author, B. B. (Year). Title of book. Publisher.
  • Author, C. C. (Year). Title of chapter. In D. D. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. page numbers). Publisher.
  • Author, D. D. (Year). Title of website. Retrieved from URL.
  • Bers, M. U., Flannery, L. P., Kazakoff, E. R., & Sullivan, A. (2014). Computational thinking and tinkering: Exploration of an early childhood robotics curriculum. Computers & Education, 72, 145-157.
  • Berson, I. R., Berson, M. J., & Ralston, M. E. (2017). Teaching digital citizenship: Reflections, challenges, and recommendations. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 33(1), 6-14.
  • Buckingham, D. (2007). Beyond technology: Children’s learning in the age of digital culture. Polity.
  • Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(2), 21-29.
  • Fraillon, J., Ainley, J., Schulz, W., Friedman, T., & Gebhardt, E. (2014). Preparing for life in a digital age: The IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study international report. Springer.
  • Hargittai, E. (2010). Digital na(t)ives? Variation in Internet skills and uses among members of the “Net Generation”. Sociological Inquiry, 80(1), 92-113.
  • Hobbs, R. (2010). Digital and media literacy: A plan of action. The Aspen Institute.
  • Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Weigel, M., Clinton, K., & Robison, A. J. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. MacArthur Foundation.
  • Livingstone, S. (2004). Media literacy and the challenge of new information and communication technologies. The Communication Review, 7(1), 3-14.
  • National Association for Media Literacy Education. (2018). Core principles of media literacy education in the United States. Retrieved from https://namle.net/publications/core-principles/
  • O’Brien, T., & Scharber, C. (2008). Digital literacy and informal learning environments: An introduction. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(2), 96-98.
  • Ofcom. (2017). Children and parents: Media use and attitudes report. Retrieved from https://www.ofcom.org.uk/research-and-data/media-literacy-research/childrens/children-parents-2017
  • Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6.
  • Rasmussen, K. L., & Rummel, N. (2018). Fostering digital literacy in the classroom: An action research study of the flipped classroom approach in the English language classroom. Computers & Education, 118, 82-96.
  • Rawolle, S., & Licorish, S. A. (2019). A systematic review of multimedia instructional design grounded in learning science. Educational Research Review, 26, 15-30.
  • Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). Free Press.
  • Selwyn, N. (2010). Looking beyond learning: Notes towards the critical study of educational technology. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(1), 65-73.
  • Stavredes, T. (2011). Effective online teaching: Foundations and strategies for

 

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