B.Ed. (1.5 Year)
Course Code: 8613
Name: Amina choudhary
Registration No: 0000048110
Semester: Autumn 2022
Theme: Developing 21 century skills of students
Sub-theme: Digital literacy
Topic: Developing media literacy through social media among grade 9.
developing media literacy through social media among grade 9.
ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD
Name of the School (where the action research was conducted):
Govt high school ……………
Overall background of the participants of the project; area / school: (socio-economic status, occupation / profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the school is situated) (10 marks)
Students in 9thgrade at Govt high school took part in the study. The 9thclass, which contains a total of 30 members, was chosen by the researchers. The students’ enthusiasm for the job and the interview derived from their curiosity about the research. In general, the school structure was spacious and elegant. The playground at the school was fantastic. It was equipped with all of the required offices. The teachers and staff at the school were highly educated and helpful. Furthermore, the school’s principal aided me in my academics at that academy. In general, the educational environment was excellent and conducive to study.
Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. Examinations of socioeconomic status often reveal inequities in access to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power and control. Most of Parents from this area are Govt. employee but some of them are shopkeeper or work in private offices. Most of parents do not afford children education due to their family expenses and their low income but some parents support their children at higher level in well reputed universities. But due to the lack of higher educational institute and low income of their parents, more than 60% children stop their education after matriculation. Overall the financial status of this area is good.
Occupation of the Parents:
Parents with Govt. jobs and small businessman are in a better condition to help and support their children educationally, mentally and profoundly. However, Parents with low income because of expenses and low salaries issues can’t give satisfactory to up level their children education. The control of the Parents in this research from this area is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so good. The children who Parents with government jobs are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction. Due to low earning trend of this area, the children face a great deal of difficulties both at home and school, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom exercises. In past, some parents drop their children at different shop for learning work and for earning but today due to free education in Pakistan more than 80% children go to school till then matriculation.
Earning trends of the Parents:
Parents with government employment and small business owners are in a better position to assist and support their children in terms of education, mental health, and profound development. Parents with limited money, however, are unable to provide adequate education for their children due to expenses and poor earnings. In this research from this area, the parental control is usual. A portion of the Parents aren’t doing so well financially. When compared to persons who work in the private sector, children with parents who work in the government are more assured and their families find a sense of contentment. They are continually dissatisfied with their lives. Children in this area encounter a significant deal of difficulty at home and at school as a result of the low earning tendency in this area, which prevents them from pursuing further education.
In 2022, Distt……… Literacy rate stands at 45% in 15+ age group and 55% in 10+ old populations. Literacy rate of 35% for females was noticeably lower than the 50% for males; ruralliteracy was 31% compared to 49% in urban areas. District has some research and educational institutions,both public and private.
Sub-theme: Digital literacy
Topic: Developing media literacy through social media among grade 9.
Q.1 Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution.
Reason for select this specific sub-theme
Digital literacy is the ability and capability to collect, investigate, and effectively use digital data in a digital or technological society. Digital literacy has become a necessity for people because now we are surrounded by technology, most of the time is spent on digital devices so we should have the digital literacy skills to excel in our respective fields. The digitally literate person has the skills to make the use of digital tools and technologies to select, access, evaluate, use, and communicate information effectively and efficiently. Digital literacy is the most fundamental step for the social and economic development of any developing nation. With the increased importance of technology and digital devices in society, digital literacy is gaining recognition as the most important and valuable tool for lifelong learners. Every day we encounter an increasingly large and diverse sea of information available through the web, mass media, published works, etc.
One reason to choose this specific sub-theme is that it can help to engage students in the learning process. By using Google to explore different locations, students are able to learn about the world in a fun and interactive way. This can be particularly beneficial for 9th grade students, who may be more inclined to learn when the material is presented in a way that is both interesting and relevant to their lives.
Another reason to choose this sub-theme is that it aligns with the current trends in education. Digital literacy has become increasingly important in recent years, as technology continues to play a greater role in our daily lives. By teaching students how to use Google effectively, educators can help to prepare them for the digital world they will encounter outside of the classroom.
Finally, this specific sub-theme can be a great way to build critical thinking skills. By searching for locations on Google, students are forced to evaluate the credibility of the sources they encounter and to think critically about the information they find. This can help to develop their ability to analyze and synthesize information, which is a valuable skill in all areas of life.
“Digital literacy refers to someone’s ability to use IT and digital technology to find, evaluate, create and communicate information,” says Matt Dunne, hiring manager at HealingHolidays. “If an applicant claims to have digital literacy skills, I’d expect them to be able to conduct thorough online research, which they can then analyze and evaluate. I would also expect them to be capable of creating a range of different digital documents and to use digital communication systems.”
Reason for select this specific topic
Researcher chooses this topic because Firstly, digital literacy is an important skill in the modern age, and teaching students how to use search engines effectively is a key component of this. By focusing on Google, students can learn about the power of search engines and how to navigate the vast amount of information available online.
Additionally, searching for locations on Google can be a great way to introduce students to the idea of virtual exploration, which can be particularly relevant during times when physical travel is limited. It can also provide opportunities for students to learn about different cultures, geographies, and histories, all from the comfort of their own classroom.
Finally, teaching digital literacy skills is essential for preparing students for the workforce, as many jobs today require a high level of digital literacy. By teaching students how to use Google effectively, educators can help ensure that their students are better prepared for the demands of the modern workforce.
Q.2 What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
After choosing this theme, I discussed this topic with my teachers, friends and supervisor.
Discussion with Supervisor:
My supervisor pointed out thatCivic literacyis essential for everyone, especially children. There are a lot of benefits gained from Civic literacy, including that it fosters a positive mood and releases the stress of the day.
Discussion with Teacher:
My teacher told me that developing positive relationships with others is very important for Civic literacy. The benefits from time spent with friends and family is that they learn to share, compromise and listen, as well as develop conflict resolution skills. Fostering these relationships as a child will also help them maintain relationships in their adult life.
- Children who rely on digital literacyare often secluded from real life interaction.
- Using computers and other electronic devices can cause health hazards such as eye strain and other physical problems.
- The technologies required for full participation can be quite expensive and this can create a gap between the children who have access to the technologies and those who do not have access.
Discussion with Friends:
One of my friend pointed about this subtheme that People have many Civic literacy, most of which benefit themselves and society. Our digital literacyto eat arises out a natural concern to ensure our own survival, whereas the digital literacysexual intercourse arises out of a natural concern to pass our genes to the next generation. Civic literacyto seek affiliation and to protect ourselves and loved ones from harm also offer examples of basic, fundamental Civic literacythat promote individual and collective well-being. Self-monitoring can prevent us from engaging in motivated behaviors. People have self-regulation to survive by eating, but they use Self-monitoring to resist their temptation to eat unhealthy foods.
I concluded that digital literacyis no longer seen as an optional extra; it is becoming an important concern of policy makers and economists. Indeed, the dramatic rise in the number of efforts to measure and monitor the position and lives of children’ in recent years.
Q.3 What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles /websites)?
One example is the book “The Digital Diet: The 4-step plan to break your tech addiction and regain balance in your life” by Daniel Sieberg. The book emphasizes the importance of developing digital literacy skills, including the ability to use search engines effectively, think critically about information, and practice responsible digital citizenship.
Another example is the article “Teaching Digital Literacy Through Search Engines: A Literature Review” by Andrea Forte and Amy Bruckman, which was published in the Journal of Educational Computing Research. The article examines the role of search engines in digital literacy education and highlights the importance of teaching students how to use search engines effectively.
A third example is the website Common Sense Education, which provides resources and lesson plans for teaching digital literacy skills to students of all ages. The website includes a section specifically dedicated to teaching students how to use search engines effectively, with lessons and activities designed to help students develop their search skills.
A review of Literature is a tool to find out the summary of previous studies in a particular field of research. Many studies are conducted regarding digital literacy previously. For instance, Esh & Ghosh (2021) analyzed in their study that LIS students good understanding and knowledge of digital literacy and its related concepts. It also highlights concern on the less proficiency of students in the proper usage of the internet and its related aspects. Andimuthu & Sinha (2021) surveyed the central university students and the results showed that the concept of digital literacy has reached the students of urban as well as rural areas of Tamil Nadu and students have well balanced the usage of electronic resources in their respective fields of studies. Shukla, Kumar, and Verma (2020) conducted a comparative survey-based study targeting postgraduate students of Mizoram and Tezpur university and the results show that above 60% of students were familiar with the information and digital literacy skills. The majority of respondents are aware of the concept of plagiarism as well as different anti-plagiarism software. Kumar (2020) found in his study that there is a need to develop a better e-educational environment among the students to develop digital resource awareness as many of them are not aware of the subject gateways, online databases, and web portals. Murthy & Kumari (2019) finds in their study that with the enhancement of technology usage in the current time, most students consult digital resources for their respective studies. Thakur (2020) examined the digital literacy skills among the postgraduate students of the school of social science at the University of Jammu. The study shows that the respondents opined themselves very poorly using different digital literacy skills. The majority of the respondents i.e. (80.7%) feel that they possess a good understanding of the functions of a computer and its hardware components.
Above (70%) of the respondents know the different skills such as using to search commands to locate files and recording and edit digital videos
Overall, there are many resources available that address the importance of developing digital literacy skills among students, including the ability to use search engines effectively. These resources can be useful for educators who are looking to incorporate digital literacy education into their classroom instruction.
Bottom of Form
Q.4 What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions /description from literature.
Developing 21st Century skills in students
Previously, students worked on developing specific skill sets and understanding domain areas that they would need for their future careers. Today’s students, however, will need a set of transferable skills that can be applied in nearly every setting in order to succeed. Many educational experts define 21st-century skills as competencies that must be mastered to collaborate effectively and problem solve in a global economy. Some examples of 21st-century skills include critical thinking, creativity, communication, adaptability, digital literacy and cross-cultural understanding.
Digital literacy refers to an individual’s ability to find, evaluate, and communicate information through typing and other media on various digital platforms. It is evaluated by an individual’s grammar, composition, typing skills and ability to produce text, images, audio and designs using technology.
Q.5 What did you want to achieve in this research project?
Objective / purpose of the study:
The purpose of this action research will be Developing media literacy through social media among grade 9.
Objective of this research are:
- To develop digital literacy for students through use of social media among grade 7th.
- To explore effect of digital literacy for students through use of social media .
- To discover the effect of effect of digital literacy for students through use of social media among grade 7th.
- How to develop digital literacy for students through use of social media among grade 7th?
- How effect of effect of digital literacy for students through use of social media among grade 7th?
- Which level of goal is best used for effect of digital literacy for students through use of social media ?
Q.6 Who were the participants in your project?
The targeted population was students enrolled in young learners of Govt high school. However, in these observations, thirty-two (30) participants , taking a related course, were selected in a School as a sample while considering the research control and validity of thisstudy. This sample included parents of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the student’s parents in young learner’s class. The digital literacywas developed on the basis of a series of research regarding identification and improvement for young learner’s class students. This curriculum purported to enhancestudents’ Self-monitoring and depositions through speculating about academic learning and life issue discussion.
Q.7 How did you try to solve the problem?
Method of the study:
The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. Thesocial wonder under investigation was the developing social responsibility through support honesty behavior among 8th grade students. Survey,interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the dataknowledge important to respond to the research questions.
The term survey is normally used on the other hand with audit. It is ordinary and straightforward strategy fordata amassing, in actuality, look at. Moreover, it is snappiest, most affordable, private method for social affairdata from respondents. The data was accumulated through efficient research gadget. So in suchsort inspects, it is indispensable during progress of estimation gadget for quality data to recollect all points of view. Emotional/Quantitative system was used to get critical and cautious information. Information wasassembled through survey including simply close completed request in regard to investigate goals. The close bycompleted overview was made for data gathering.
The entire group from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students ofGovt high School. It was quite convenient for me, being a resident of School to accumulatequality data from chosen city and Area.Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents thewhole population.The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample the students of Dar ul Arooba School. Andtheir teacher was selected for this class based action research.
From the inception of this research I was extremely particular to carry out an ethical inquiry and therefore gave serious thought to all ethical aspects this study would entail. As teacher-researchers, my young learner’s class responsibility was to my students. An action research is considered ‘ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and Area governing body. Permission was sought from Area head. Permission was granted by the Education Department for this study to take place at the Area where I was teaching. The rights of the participants (young learner’s class students) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.
Q.8 What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrumentdeveloped?
Observation tools were used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of observations were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The observation was prepared to attain study objectives.
Quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using performing based methods (in particular statistics). Quantitative data contains closed ended information such as that found on attitude behavior and performance instruments .In this study the children have been given a questionnaire to find out Using social responsibility through support honesty behaviorin young children and this observation has been derived and analyzed in terms of numerical data. This is why the research falls under quantitative category.
Anobservation is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondent’s statistical society. Usually a observation consists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format .A distinction made between open ended and closed ended questions .an open ended question ask the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed ended question has the respondent pick an answer from given number of options.
Q.9 What were the findings and conclusion?
I used scale observations to get students’ responsestowards the use for the improvement of digital literacy through use of social media .
1. Adopt a business code of ethics
A business code of ethics will outline employee conduct on issues such as ethics, values, environment, diversity, and employee respect and customer service.
More and more entrepreneurs are choosing to go one step further by changing their governance document to include their commitment to social and environmental goals.
2. Follow a workplace health and safety program
Creating a clear workplace health and safety program will help you establish reliable systems to protect your employees and prevent accidents and injuries. It will also ensure you are compliant with government legislation on health and safety.
3. Commit to protecting the environment
Develop policies and practices that allow your company to fulfill your commitment to the environment. For example, you can consider producing a report that documents your activities and results as they relate to your environmental impact. Some companies produce broader “sustainability” reports, which encompass social, economic and environmental activities.
4. Get your suppliers on board
Ensure your suppliers know and meet your expectations of responsible behaviour regarding issues such as fair pricing, for example. Screen them to determine their past conduct, and tell them what you expect.
5. Be smart about donating money
Get behind causes that are meaningful for your business. A forestry business, for example, might choose to support organizations that protect the environment. Many manufacturing businesses donate to community organizations in towns where they have plants. The idea is to give back to society, while at the same time sending a message about the values of your brand.
6. Don’t greenwash your business
Use marketing techniques that are fair and honest, and that reflect your company’s integrity. Avoid any advertising or communication that could be seen as manipulative or harmful to the public. Make sure you walk the talk and that your company does what it says it does, otherwise your company could risk a customer backlash.
7. Explore B Corp certification
Many public and society-minded entrepreneurs are choosing to get B Corp certified. B Corps are certified “beneficial” companies. Their purpose is to create value for society as well as money. They meet high standards of transparency and accountability, and create positive social and environmental benefit.
This topic argues for an understanding of action regulation as inextricably related to the motivational process of goal setting and planning. Within this conceptual framework our research has explored students’ action patterns, both in normal ongoing classroom situations and in stressful circumstances. Goals are emphasized as essential aspects of the motivational quality of activities, namely through the role they play in the regulation of action. In this study the detection of students’ behavioral goals is addressed. Several achievement and social goals are described and ways to assess students’ goal setting and planning processes are proposed. Strategies that students use to handle classroom stressors are explored. These include strategic flexible action, strategic rigid action, passive behavior, and disorganized behavior. These strategies represent distinct forms of action regulation. Relations between students’ strategies, which are viewed as indications of their control, and agency beliefs are also examined. Finally, classroom features, which might help or hinder students’ social responsibility, are discussed, including teachers’ goals and students’ perceptions of teachers’ goals for classroom activities.
Summary of the Project
Civics and Citizenship supports students to become “active and informed citizens who participate in and sustain Australia’s democracy” (VCAA, n.d.). Being an active and informed citizen includes, among other things, investigating and understanding political and legal systems, and exploring the nature of citizenship, diversity and identity in contemporary society. To do this, students must be able to read and critically listen to a range of texts, as well as to produce written and spoken texts to interact with others and engage in public dialogue and debate.
Literacy in Civics and Citizenship refers to the:
- literate practices and strategies that enable students to understand, synthesise, analyse and communicate knowledge
- reading, viewing, writing, speaking and listening practices that students use to access, understand and communicate knowledge
- understanding of complex terminology.
Literate demands in Civics and Citizenship education
Literacy strategies enable students to develop their understanding of the role of active and informed citizens in a secular democratic nation with a multicultural and multi-faith society.
Listening, interacting, speaking, understanding texts and creating texts are necessary skills in the development of knowledge and understanding in Civics and Citizenship education.
The literate demands of Civics and Citizenship include:
- critically analysing information
- understanding and using technical vocabulary
- using diverse and multimodal contemporary sources as evidence
- formulating questions
- explaining different viewpoints on societal issues
- arguing an evidence-based position (ACARA, n.d.).
The ability to read and critically analyse multimodal sources, both print and digital, is fundamental. Civics and Citizenship has technical terminology which has a discipline-specific meaning. Students need to understand and use terms relating to:
- the Australian system of government
- such as Westminster system, constitution, separation of powers, Senate, and ballot
- the legal system
- such as a jury, rule of law and burden of proof
- abstract concepts terms
- such as fairness, freedom, equality, inclusion, respect, tolerance and responsibility (VCAA, n.d.).
Using targeted literacy teaching strategies, teachers can support students to:
- understand and correctly use new vocabulary and terms
- to identify, analyse, evaluate and explain contemporary issues such as debates over changes to the law, elections and Australian government responses to international events
- clarify, extend and communicate their developing knowledge of Civics and Citizenship.
- Civics and Citizenship texts are complex as they are comprised of multiple genres and are often multimodal in nature. Explicitly teaching students about the textual features of the various genres will help to improve students’ reading, writing and speaking.
The common genres students will read and write include:
- procedural (protocols)
- chronicles (factual/biographical/historical recounts)
- reports (descriptive, classifying)
- explanations (sequential, causal), and
- persuasive pieces (analytical exposition, discussion and challenge) (ACARA, n.d.).
- Literacy in the Victorian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship
- Literate practices are embedded in the aims of the Victorian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship. For example, the curriculum aims to ensure students develop:
skills necessary to investigate contemporary civics and citizenship issues
responsible participation in Australia’s democracy
capacities and dispositions to participate in the civic life of their nation at a local, regional and global level (VCAA, n.d.).
Across each of the three strands in Civics and Citizenship, students require specific literate practices to:
- interpret and analyse texts
- communicate information
- make judgments, arguments and debates
- form conclusions
- make plans for action.
Students also must develop interactive speaking and listening skills to:
- develop an appreciation of diverse perspectives
- express empathy collaborate and negotiate with others.
Being able to read, view, write, speak about and listen to a variety of texts will enable students to access new information and become more informed and articulate citizens.
Q.11 How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?
I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such tasks.im feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. When i taught the children then me counsel dictionary and great writers, businessmen and novels .These all things increased my Conflict management also showed them video lesson of some expert and creative writers to teach them. It also helped me to learn new things. This practice also improved my writing skills too.
I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grammar. My work has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other.
The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. Awareness alone won’t help us stop using Conflict management. Awareness after the fact is what I’m talking about here. Starting anything new and trying to create a habit out of it takes work and time. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect.
Q.12 What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
It added a lot of new skills in my teaching .It improved my way of teaching. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of Self-monitoring.
Different kids learn in different ways, and some lessons need unique teaching tools. Good Parents know how to adapt their lesson plan to their students, so that all the kids learn optimally. This trait can take some experience and practice in a classroom setting, so give it time.
Whether you teach high Area chemistry or kindergarten, nothing is a more effective tool than using your imagination to create new and self-regulation ways for your students to learn. You may be inspired by the work of another teacher, mentor or a TV commercial – it doesn’t matter. All that matters is that you take the initiative to find new ways for your kids to learn the material.
Parents could have a hard time without a wide variety of support staff around them. If you feel alone, your Area principal, administrative staff, parent-teacher committee, and more are often available to provide you help. By working as a team, you may have an easier time increasing your students’ ability to learn and have fun.
In this modern, digital age, Parents need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way Parents teach.
This is likely the single most important skill. Kids these days are stubborn, and many lack the inherent respect for authority that we were taught at a young age. Spending a single day in a room full of raucous teenagers is enough to send any human being to the Looney bin, which is why every good teacher needs patience in order to find a way to work with his students and earn their respect.
Sometimes to get the big reward, you may need to take a risk. Being a teacher is about finding a way to get kids to learn, and sometimes these new learning methods can be risky. Stick to it and you’ll soon find that others are following your teaching example.
List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual – 6th Edition). (05 marks)
Andimuthu, S., & Sinha, P. (2021). Digital literacy and reading habits of the Central University of Tamil Nadu students: A survey study. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), 1-19. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/6087
Anjaiah, M. (2016). Digital information literacy among research scholars and students community at Dravidian University, Kuppam-Andra Pradesh (India): An exploratory study. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 21(9), 1-8. doi: 10.9790/0837-2109120108
Balakrishnan, R., & Ramalingam, J. (2019). Digital literacy skills of the aspirants of competitive examinations in the Anna Centenary Library, Chennai: A study. Library Philosophy and Practice, 1-16. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/2339/
Bibina, C. B., & Kabir, S. H. (2018). Digital literacy among research scholars of social science and arts faculties in University of Kerala: A comparative study. Kelpro Bulletin, 22(1), 59-70. Retrieved from http://dspace.cusat.ac.in/jspui/handle/123456789/13409
Krishnamurthy, C., & Shettappanavar, L. (2019). Digital literacy among female postgraduate students of Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India: A Study. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), 1-15. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/2934/
Kumar, R. (2020). Digital information literacy among the engineering students: A survey. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), 1-8. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/4326
Kumari, S. K., & Mallaiah, T. Y. (2017). Digital information literacy skills among faculty members of engineering colleges in Manalore, Karnataka: A study. International Journal of Digital Library Services, 7(1), 28-37. Retrieved from http://www.ijodls.in/uploads/3/6/0/3/3603729/3ijodls7117.pdf
Lokesha, M., & Kumari, A. (2019). Digital information literacy of Mangalore University students: A study. International Journal of Information Dissemination and Technology, 9(1), 40-43. Retrieved from https://www.ijidt.com/index.php/ijidt/article/view/9.1.8
National institutional ranking framework. Retrieved from https://www.nirfindia.org/2021/UniversityRanking.html
Parvathamma, N., & Pattar, D. (2013). Digital literacy among student community in management institutes in Davanagere district, Karnataka state, India. Annals of Library and Information Studies (ALIS), 60(3), 159-166. Retrieved from http://op.niscair.res.in/index.php/ALIS/article/view/863
Pratap, R. V., & Singh, K. (2018). Digital literacy skills among students and research scholars of the law school, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India: A study. International Journal of Next Generation Library and Technologies, 4(1), 1-11. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323413020_DIGITAL_LITERACY_SKIL LS_AMONG_STUDENTS_AND_RESEARCH_SCHOLARS_OF_THE_LAW_SC HOOL_BANARAS_HINDU_UNIVERSITY_VARANASI_INDIA_A_STUDY
Sarman, Bansal, S., & Singh, G. (2018) Assessing digital literacy skills of research scholars of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana: A study. Journal of Advancements in Library Sciences, 5(2), 12-19. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334669874_Assessing_Digital_Literacy_S kills_of_Research_Scholars_of_Punjab_Agricultural_University_Ludhiana_A_Stud y
Saxena, N. (2017). A study of proliferation of digital literacy in Indian higher education sector. International Education & Research Journal (IERJ), 3(4), 127-128. Retrieved from https://issuu.com/thewriterspublication/docs/46-dr._niti_saxena.
Shukla, R., & Verma, M. (2020). Assessment of information literacy skills among the masters students of Social Science of Mizoram University and Tezpur University in India. International Journal of Information, 12(3), 92-105. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343279875_Assessment_of_Information_ Literacy_Skills_Among_the_Masters_Students_of_Social_Sciences_of_Mizoram_U niversity_and_Tezpur_University_in_India
Shukla, R., & Verma, M. (2020). Information literacy skills among the PG students of the University of Jammu, India: A comparative assessment between the students of Education and Law. IASLIC Bulletin, 65(4), 246-255. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352550211_Information_Literacy_Skills_a
Thakur, R. A. (2020). An analysis of digital literacy skills among postgraduate students of school of social sciences of University of Jammu. In Proceedings of International Conference on “Academic Libraries: Latest Trends, Challenges and Opportunities” organized by Jiwaji University, Gwalior, to be held on 14th – 16th February 2020. (pp. 64-72). ISBN: 978-81-8880-577-8
The University of Jammu. Retried from https://www.jammuuniversity.ac.in/
Verma, M., & Shukla, R, (2020). Information literacy skills among the masters’ students of Social Sciences departments of Mizoram University and Tezpur University: A comparative Study. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 41(1), 374-384, doi: 10.14429/djlit.41.5.16399.