AOU Citizenship Education and Community Engagement 8606-2 Solved Assignment Autumn 2022

Course: Citizenship Education and Community Engagement (8606)

Level: B.Ed (1.5/2.5 Years)                           Semester: Autumn, 2022


Q. 1 a) Describe the means of social control in a society


Social Control

The ways in which society prevents and sanctions behavior that violates social norms.

Social control refers to societal and political mechanisms that regulate individual and group behaviour in an attempt to gain conformity and compliance to the rules of a given society, state, or social group. Sociologists identify two basic forms of social control – informal control and formal control.

Formal Control

Formal social control typically involves the state. External sanctions are enforced by the government to prevent chaos, violence, or anomie in society. An example of this would be a law preventing individuals from committing theft. Some theorists, like Émile Durkheim, refer to this type of control as regulation.

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Informal Control

Informal control typically involves an individual internalizing certain norms and values. This process is called socialization. The social values present in individuals are products of informal social control, exercised implicitly by a society through particular customs, norms, and mores. Individuals internalize the values of their society, whether conscious or not of this indoctrination.

Informal sanctions may include shame, ridicule, sarcasm, criticism, and disapproval, which can cause an individual to conform to the social norms of the society. In extreme cases, sanctions may include social discrimination, exclusion, and violence. Informal social control has the potential to have a greater impact on an individual than formal control. When social values become internalized, they become an aspect of an individual’s personality.


Informal sanctions check ‘deviant’ behavior. An example of a negative sanction is depicted in a scene in ‘The Wall,’ a film by Pink Floyd. In this scene, a young protagonist is ridiculed and verbally abused by a high school teacher for writing poetry in a mathematics class. Another example occurs in the movie ‘About a Boy. ” In this film, a young boy hesitates to jump from a high springboard and is ridiculed for his fear. Though he eventually 

b) In your opinion, which social control agents are influential in our society and why.

Social control which implies the social intercourse is regulated in accordance with established and recognised standards, is comprehensive, omnipotent and effective to stimulate order, discipline and mutuality; and to discourage, and if need be, to punish the deviance.The aim of social order, Parsons has well said, is “nipping deviant tendencies in the bud”. If that be not done, social order would cease to exist; the law of the brute would prevail. The world would be that ‘brutish’ and ‘nasty’ state will prevail in society. Just the opposite is the process and influence that regulated social action.

The mechanics of socialisation, the process of internalization of values etc. and the bondage due to emotion – repulsion and attraction, that individuals, generally come up as conformists. Social control works always and all the time. But in view of the fact that society is subject to external impact, and internal revulsions, that continuity and change is the character of social system, the enforcement of social control is not simple.

Q.2 a) Analyze the effect of school on community in a progressive society

 Schools were particularly credited with improving student attitudes and behaviors in addition to performing the academic functions of increasing knowledge and career preparation. They were referred to as “bank accounts” that are helping communities to prepare for their futures through investments in children. Students at the schools were thought to be more likely to avoid jail, pregnancy, and delinquency and to get good jobs that would benefit the overall community. Even if the students left to finish school elsewhere, it was thought they would be likely to return and work in the area.The schools also benefit the communities by employing teachers who would otherwise be without jobs and income. This is indicative of the sense that the schools are key players in a virtuous cycle for communities. By benefiting students, families, teachers, and other stakeholders, those individuals develop the skills and stability to help others, thereby perpetuating an ongoing process of community development.

b) What strategies can a teacher apply to strengthen the relationship between school and community

Education is not all about finding X in a mathematical equation or writing book reports. It extends to how students will fit into the real world during their school days and afterward.A good education produces young people with a positive sense of self-concept and sound emotional and mental well-being.


These young people will be able to form healthy, positive relationships with their parents, family members, and the rest of the community. Plus, they will become good future employees and employers.

The school on its own can not instill these values. In the same vein, parents and social groupings alone can not produce well-rounded individuals.

b) How can effective communication result in improved management

Communication and management are closely linked. Communication refers to the process by which information is exchanged between two or more people (increasingly, machines are also included in communication, but we limit the discussion here to communication between people). Each of the management roles—planning, organizing, leading, and controlling—depends on effective communication. Managers must be able to receive accurate information to determine plans, and they must be able to send accurate information for the plans to be implemented. When information is accurately sent and received, everyone in an organization can be informed. As we see in the earlier example, however, when information is misinterpreted or when incorrect information spreads, communications can create significant problems in organizations.

Q.4 a) Describe the relationship between technological change and society

Technology and Social Change

Technology is the application of scientific knowledge to the making of tools to solve specific problems. Technological advances such as automobiles, airplanes, radio, television, cellular phones, computers, modems, and fax machines have brought major advances and changes to the world. Indeed, 20th century technology has completely—and irreversibly—changed the way people meet, interact, learn, work, play, travel, worship, and do business.

Technological information increases exponentially: The entire database of scientific knowledge doubles every several years. This “technological explosion” is due in part to an “Information explosion,” as well as to advances in storage, retrieval, and communication of data. In other words, a cycle occurs: Improvements in technology lead to increases in knowledge and information and, thus, to uncovering the means to create better technology. Consequently, sociologists are concerned with how technological societies will be forced to adapt to the social changes that improvements in technology will continue to bring.

b) Analyze the response of Pakistani society to technological change

Pakistan’s startups need government help to foster innovation and protect intellectual property. Technology, including the IT industry, in Pakistan has enormous potential for growth. But teething problems, especially a lack of funds and encouragement for product development, have deterred start-ups from moving forward with disruptive innovations or technologies. While Pakistan’s technology sector struggles to get off the ground, Indian IT exports have reached more than $100 billion.However, Pakistan can turn a corner by investing in tech start-ups and disruptive technologies, providing facilities like incubators, office space, and financial leeway. Such measures could not only promote entrepreneurship and innovation-based critical thinking but would also clean the Augean stables of poverty and unemployment. Technology is sine qua non for the 21st century and ignoring it could result in unquantifiable lost economic opportunities.Pakistan has a very robust youth population and with measures like incubators and financial assistance the country can create a roadmap toward innovation-based technologies and breakthroughs– much like the United States did at the start of 20th century and India did in the early 1990s.

Q.5 a) Explicate the roles and responsibilities of school, parents and local bodies in communitiy development

The role of parents, community and schools are the main stakeholders related to a student’s quality education. I have focused to this because the education system has not shown the proper ability to complete the tasks and problems occurred with the education provided by Nepalese Educational institutions. The study is focused how to ensure the capabilities in the children during the time of proving the education in our formal education system.

Importance of study:

Each and every study should have with great importance for its practicality. The study which is improper and impractical is meaningless. So, I have taken that this article will play an important role for those who are really establishing the formal foundation  of learning among the responsible authorities  to ensure children’s  quality education.


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