Course: Educational Leadership and Management (8605)
Level: B.Ed (2.5 Years) Semester: Autumn, 2022
Q.1 Explain the functions of administration and discuss the scope of Islamic administration
The principles of administrative mentality in Islamic civilization
Administration has come until today as a phenomenon from the time of the Prophet Adam (as). It has seemed as one of the most basic needs of humanity, because the innate nature of human requires an efficient administration, and many natural events, which we can call the innate nature of the universe, also teach us the administrative mentality.
To be able to define a system as an administration, these four elements must be together:
1- A particular thought system
2- A community that gathers around this thought system
3- The goals to be pursued, and the aims to be achieved, which are proper to the thought system
4- A leader, or administrator, who coordinates and organizes all these elements in a particular way of relationship and balance and ensures supervision. 1
Now, in consideration of the elements mentioned above, we can evaluate the administrative mentality of Islamic civilization as follows:
1- Our thought system is Islam which we describe as “greater humanity” and the borders of which are drawn by the Islamic scholars.
Q.2 What is management and discuss its importance?
Management is an Economic Factor
For an economist, management is one of the factors of production together with land, labor, and capital.
As the industrialization of a nation increases, the need for management becomes greater.
The managerial resources of a firm determine, in large measure, its productivity and profitability. Executive development, therefore, is more important for those firms in a dynamic industry in which progress is rapid.
Management is a System of Authority
From an administrator’s point of view, management is a system of authority. Historically, management first developed an authoritarian philosophy.
Later on, it turned paternalistic.
Still, later, constitutional management emerged, characterized by a concern for consistent policies and procedures for dealing with the working group.
Finally, the trend of management turned towards a democratic and participatory approach.
Modern management is nothing but a synthesis of these four approaches to authority.
Management is a Class and Status System
As viewed by a sociologist, management is a class-and-status system.
The increase in the complexity of relationships in modern society demands that managers become elite of brain and education.
Entry into this class of executives is being more and more dependent on excellence in education and knowledge rather than family or political connections.
Q.3 Explain the different types of supervision. Which type is better for our schools and why? Discuss
Types of Supervision Available in Education
Brief outlines of the five types of supervision available in education are discussed in this article. The types are (1) inspection, (2) Absolute Freedom, (3) Compulsion Type, (4) Training and Direction, and (5) Democratic Leadership.
This is the first and foremost function of supervision that classes are to be inspected by the inspecting officers. It may be the headmaster of the concerned school or school inspector. This is the first supervision in the sense that the teacher becomes alert about his duties and responsibilities after being sure that his duties can be inspected all of sudden when he is in the classroom. So this type of supervision activates the teacher to have proper readiness to deliver good teaching in the classroom.
Besides, there are teachers who don’t discharge their duties properly after knowing all these things. And it has been seen that they are penalized for not taking the class in time. On thecontrary the sincere teachers are rewarded for rendering proper duties and responsibilities. This type of supervision is acceptable in almost all the developed countries of the world till now because of its balanced and positive effect on all the elements which are closely associated with it.
Q.4 Discus the importance of early childhood education and its role in the lives of students
Early Childhood Education Important
Why Is Early Childhood Education Important?
Early childhood education is a term that refers to the period of time from a child’s birth to when they enter kindergarten, according to Dr. Jessica Alvarado, academic program director for the BA in Early Childhood Development at National University. According to Alvarado, it is an important time in children’s lives because it is when they first learn how to interact with others, including peers, teachers and parents, and also begin to develop interests that will stay with them throughout their lives.
But Alvarado says it’s a common misperception that early childhood education is only about learning basic skills. “It’s so much more than that,” she says. “It’s a time when children learn critical social and emotional skills and a partnership is formed between the child, their parents and the teacher. When this is done successfully, it lays the groundwork for it to continue throughout the child’s education.”
Nations around that world are becoming aware of the importance of early childhood education as well. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is an international governing body whose mission is “to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development, and intercultural dialogue through education.” Here’s what the organization says about the importance of early childhood education:
“Early childhood care and education (ECCE) is more than preparation for primary school. It aims at the holistic development of a child’s social, emotional, cognitive and physical needs in order to build a solid and broad foundation for lifelong learning and wellbeing. ECCE has the possibility to nurture caring, capable and responsible future citizens.”
Q.5 How much school discipline is important for improving the progress of schools? Discuss.
Improve Discipline in School
“Discipline is the bridge between goals and accomplishment”
Discipline plays an essential role in keeping up a healthy social life. A disciplined life helps to eliminate hindrances for growth and other confusions that stand in the way of success.
Since schools play an important part in character development and shaping behavior, discipline in school is pivotal and of paramount importance.
Now, what is ‘discipline in school’? Every school will have a set of norms and codes of conduct. School discipline is an arrangement of these specific implicit rules, conduct, and behavior for keeping the students in check and making them efficient individuals.
In order to make the teaching-learning process effective and useful, the classroom environment must be great and ideal. Discipline helps to create a healthy classroom and a healthy classroom ensures discipline. It works both ways.
Today, we will be talking about 10 ways to improve discipline in school and how to maintain discipline in school. Discipline in schools for students can be tricky to tackle but with these ten tips, you can control it to an extent. Without further ado, let’s take a look at how to improve discipline in school.
Ten ways to Improve Discipline in School
1. Plan and Organize
How to maintain discipline in school; students discipline; online education; classroom management
Ensure that there is a routine and a rhythm in the classroom. This way, the students know what to expect from the class and what is expected out of them.
On the off chance that there is no legitimate planning and proper organization in your classroom, kids will feel exhausted and would begin to act mischievously.