Course: Educational Psychology (6402) Semester: Autumn, 2022
Level: ADE/B. Ed (4 Year)
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q. 1 Maslow’s theory of self-actualization and Murray’s theory of motivation are considered two important theories of motivation. Discuss them briefly.
Motivation is the mixture of wants, needs and drives within the individual which seek gratification through the acquisition or object. Marketers continually ask what ultimately promotes the consumer to purchase their product. Clearly consumer motivations are complex, and marketers must work vigorously to uncover them. According to motivation theory, environmental stimuli may activate the drive to satisfy an underlying need. Theorists like Abraham Maslow and Henry Murray have elaborate models of the way physiological and social needs influence behavior. In this paper we will discuss the theories of Murray and Maslow and try to analyze how their theories facilitate our understanding of the consumer decision making process. The flow of the paper is first based on describing the theoretical aspects of the model and then doing a detailed analysis of its success in describing consumer decision making.
Henry Murray’s Theory was focused on 2 types of needs, which are physical needs and psychological needs. Physical needs aim to reach a satisfaction of basic physical processes, such as need for food, air, water, or sex. Psychological needs focus on emotional and mental satisfaction, for example, the need for social interaction or to achieve difficult goals. After researching this area, Murray narrowed all the psychological needs down to twenty seven areas. However, some of the list and names depends on the time frame and the author. The next section presents the list of 27 needs.
Q. 2 What are different areas of individual differences?
Man differs in his physical developments structurally and functionally. These differences are seen in height, weight size of the body, structure of different parts of the body, color of hair, skin, physical strength and precision.
Mental difference are noticed in the form of perception, concept formation, imagination, formation of imaging, memory and attention.
Difference in intelligence level is seen in individuals into different categories such as genius, gifted, superior, bright, averages, imbeciles and idiots on the basis of their intelligence level.
Interest differs from individual, to individual, man to woman, adolescent to adult, society to society and culture to culture. Every man has his own interest. Boys and girls greatly differ in their interests in choosing courses, books, pictures, games and dresses.
Q. 3 What do you understand about ‘mental health’? What are the main causes of maladjustment?
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel, and act. It also helps determine how we handle stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood.
Over the course of your life, if you experience mental health problems, your thinking, mood, and behavior could be affected. Many factors contribute to mental health problems, including:
· Biological factors, such as genes or brain chemistry
· Life experiences, such as trauma or abuse
· Family history of mental health problems
Mental health problems are common but help is available. People with mental health problems can get better and many recover completely.
Not sure if you or someone you know is living with mental health problems? Experiencing one or more of the following feelings or behaviors can be an early warning sign of a problem:
· Eating or sleeping too much or too little
· Pulling away from people and usual activities
· Having low or no energy
· Feeling numb or like nothing matters
· Having unexplained aches and pains
· Feeling helpless or hopeless
· Smoking, drinking, or using drugs more than usual
· Feeling unusually confused, forgetful, on edge, angry, upset, worried, or scared
· Yelling or fighting with family and friends
· Experiencing severe mood swings that cause problems in relationships
· Having persistent thoughts and memories you can’t get out of your head
· Hearing voices or believing things that are not true
· Thinking of harming yourself or others
· Inability to perform daily tasks like taking care of your kids or getting to work or school
Q. 4 Discuss different modes of guidance at school.
It refers to that guidance that a child or students need during his school life. Also, it helps them to solve the problem that they face in school. In addition, it gives all the required details that children need related to the school they find most suitable. Most noteworthy, education is the process that guides and directs children for her/his proper development.
Every aspect of school education is strongly related to educational guidance. Moreover, it includes the aim, objectives, discipline, syllabus, the role of teachers, methods of teaching, and co-curricular activity.
In addition, these guidelines help in the adjustment of the course of study according to the ability and skill of the student. This process helps a student to make wise choices in relation to his education life ahead. Most noteworthy, this process assists a person to plan her/his education plan and carry it forward without any problem.
Q. 5 How does person-centered counseling work?
For some people, an ideal therapeutic approach doesn’t necessarily mean consulting a professional, answering questions that’ll help them determine what’s wrong, and listening to another person advise them on how to work through their struggles. The therapeutic process can also involve a more humanistic approach, where your therapist merely guides your journey of self-discovery and supports you in finding the answers you’ve been seeking. After all, you’re the expert on your own life.
This type of psychotherapy is known as client-centered therapy, and it focuses on maximizing your ability to find your own solutions with the right amount of support. If you are looking for an effective humanistic therapy method to help support your mental health, this type of person-centered approach is an excellent place to start.