AIOU Educational Psychology 6402-1 Autumn 2022 Solved Assignment

AIOU Course Code 6402-1 Autumn 2022 Solved Assignment

Course: Educational Psychology (6402) Semester: Autumn, 2022

Level: ADE/B. Ed (4 Year)

 

ASSIGNMENT No. 1

 

Q. 1 Why should a teacher know about Educational Psychology? 

 

Teachers play a vital role in the development and education of children. They are the ones who are with students the most, and who have the most influence on them. Given this important role, it is essential that teachers have a good understanding of educational psychology. Educational psychology is the study of how people learn. It can help teachers understand why some students struggle in certain subjects, and how to best support them. some of the reasons why teachers should know about educational psychology. We will also look at some specific ways that it can help them in their work.

What is Educational Psychology?

Educational psychology is the study of how people learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. It applies psychological principles to problems in education including cognitive development, motivation, emotion, classroom climate, learning environment design, individual differences in ability and personality, technology in education, and educational policy.

Educational psychologists work in a variety of settings including universities, colleges, government agencies, private businesses, and elementary and secondary schools. They may conduct research on topics such as how memory works or how people process information. They may also develop new assessment tools or intervene directly with students to help them overcome learning difficulties.

How can Educational Psychology be used in the classroom?

Educational psychology is the scientific study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, and the psychology of teaching. Educational psychologists work in a variety of settings, including elementary and secondary schools, universities, and government agencies.
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Q. 2     What is meant by moral development? Discuss

l development is the process by which children learn to differentiate between right and wrong. According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, this process occurs in three stages: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. In the pre-conventional stage, children focus primarily on their own needs and wants. In the conventional stage, they begin to take others into consideration. And in the post-conventional stage, they develop a sense of social contract and universal principles.

What is Moral Development?

Moral development is the process that children go through as they learn to understand right from wrong and make decisions about what they should do. Lawrence Kohlberg was a psychologist who researched moral development and came up with a theory about how it works.

According to Kohlberg, there are three levels of moral development, each made up of two stages. In the first level, people learn to follow rules in order to avoid punishment or get rewards. This is called the preconventional stage. In the second level, people start to think about others and realize that there are consequences to their actions beyond just avoiding punishment or getting rewards. This is called the conventional stage. In the third level, people think about morality from a more abstract point of view and start to consider things like principles and values. This is called the postconventional stage.

 

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Q. 3 Discuss theoretical perspectives about development.       

The different theories that exist and how they can be applied to real-world situations. Development is a complex process, and there is no one right answer. However, understanding the various theories can help us to approach development in a more holistic way.

Psychoanalytic Theory

Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is one of the most influential and controversial theories of development. Freud believed that our early experiences shape our personalities and our behaviors. He also believed that we are not consciously aware of many of these experiences and that they operate outside of our conscious awareness.

Freud’s theory has been criticized for its emphasis on sexuality and its lack of scientific evidence. However, it remains one of the most influential theories in psychology.

Behaviorism

Behaviorism is a theory of development that emphasizes the role of environmental factors in shaping behavior. According to behaviorists, all behavior is learned through conditioning. This means that people learn to behave in certain ways as a result of their experiences with their environment. Behaviorists believe that all behavior can be explained in terms of stimulus-response relationships. In other words, they believe that people respond to environmental stimuli in predictable ways.
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Q. 4 What do you understand by concept and concept teaching?

 

The term ‘concept’ is used a great deal in education. It usually appears in the context of ‘concept teaching’ or a ‘concept-based curriculum’. But what do these terms actually mean. the concept of concept teaching and its implications for the classroom. Concept teaching has been found to be an effective pedagogical approach for supporting students’ understanding of complex ideas. It involves breaking down a concept into its component parts and then helping students to see the relationships between those parts. This type of teaching can be used with any age group and across all subject areas. So, if you’re looking for a way to improve student learning, concept teaching could be it!

What is a concept?

Concepts are the basic units of thought and knowledge. They are the mental representations of objects, events, ideas, or relationships. All thinking and learning involve concepts.

Teaching concepts is a type of instruction that helps students represent important ideas in a subject area using a variety of methods. The goal is for students to understand not only the “what” but also the “why” behind the concept. When done effectively, concept teaching can help students make connections between prior knowledge and new information, see relationships between different ideas, and apply concepts to real-world situations.

 

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Q. 5  Discuss classical conditioning as associative theory of learning.

Classical conditioning is a type of associative learning process that occurs when two stimuli are paired together. After repeated pairings, the conditioned stimulus (CS) comes to signal the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US), which elicits a conditioned response (CR).

Classical Conditioning Definition

In classical conditioning, an animal or person learns to associate a particular stimulus with a particular response. For example, a dog may learn to associate the sound of a bell with the arrival of food. Once this association is made, the dog will begin to salivate when it hears the bell, even if there is no food present.

The basic principles of classical conditioning were first discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), who conducted groundbreaking experiments with dogs. In one famous experiment, Pavlov rang a bell every time he presented food to his dogs. After doing this for a while, he noticed that the dogs began to salivate in anticipation of food whenever they heard the sound of the bell – even when no food was present.
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