Course: Education in Pakistan (6405) Semester: Autumn, 2022
Level: B.Ed. (4 Years)
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q. 1 Discuss the structure and functions of Directorate of secondary education. Highlight the role and responsibilities of designated persons in directorate.
The Directorate of Secondary Education looks after the management of secondary school education in the state. The Director of Public Instructions (Schools) [DPI (S)] is in charge of this Directorate. He is also the Drawing and Disbursing Officer (D.D.O) for the establishment and officers at the Headquarters.
The D.P.I (S) is accountable to the Education Secretary in all matters concerning secondary education. He is to implement the important educational policies and programmes of the Government and also give suggestions to the Government concerning any aspect of school education. The D.P.I (S) is assisted by four Deputy Directors, who are assisted by Assistant Directors, Administrative Officers etc.
He is the in charge of school administration. He deals with all matters relating to transfers, promotions, seniority, release of grades and rationalisation of posts of teachers of all categories-C & V Masters, lecturers, headmasters. He is assisted by A.D.S.A (I) and A.D.S.A. (II). The A.D.S.A (I) normally deals with male non-gazetted secondary staff, whereas A.D.S.A. (II) deals with the administrative matters relating to the female staff.
Q. 2 Elaborate the procedure development of curriculum before 18th amendment. Also highlight the principles of textbook evaluation.
THE 18th Amendment to the constitution of Pakistan is an important step forward for the parliamentary system in the country. It promises more autonomy to the provinces — a popular demand put forward by a number of political parties.
Apart from the political restructuring it mandates, the amendment also holds some major implications for the country’s system of education. Through it a new article, 25A, has been inserted into the constitution that reads: “Right to education: The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to 16 years in such manner as may be determined by law.” This is an important undertaking by the state since education, in contemporary times, is considered an important tool for enhancing one’s chances for socioeconomic development.
In Pakistan, a large number of students do not have access to schools or drop out before they reach the fifth grade. A major reason behind the high dropout rate is poverty, and as a result a large number of children remain illiterate and cannot become part of the literate human resource group which is vital for the development of a country. An effective implementation of this article of the constitution would without doubt pave the way for enriching the national human capital.
Q. 3 Elaborate the scope and significance of examinations structure of AIOU also explain the difficulties faced by AIOU students in examination.
Examinations department is one of the most significant body in the organizational hierarchy of AIOU, Its role is multifarious as not only does it conducts examinations and awards degrees/certificates but also plays a key role in the development of knowledge and skill of learners. Examinations are a part of growth of students and play essential role in knowledge and capability testing, they develop a sense of responsibility among students to learn and present the learned concepts to attain the same level of knowledge and capability.
Examinations Department of Allama Iqbal Open University is performing its role, in conduct of exams, evaluation of answer scripts, compilation and declaration of results for issuance of certificates and their verifications, from Matric to PhD level, since 1974. The department is maintaining its sanctity through strict and transparent procedures to intact the secrecy and enhance the efficiency. The department is headed by Controller of Examinations, further divided into different sections, each headed by respective Additional Controller of Exams. The Examinations Department of AIOU enjoys its uniqueness in comparison to other universities in the sense that it’s been tackling versatile systems which deals with Face to Face, Blended, ODL and Online. This department is handling all different kinds of examination systems with efficiency and diligence.
Q. 4 Explain the role of technology in providing school education at the door steps. What is the role of parents while using technology for education?
Although technology is finally being integrated into education, its use for teaching and learning still remains a challenge. Despite the fact that many schools today are privileged to have ready access to technology, trained teachers, and a favourable policy environment, the use of technology in the classroom is still low. Some attribute low levels of technology use in education to the pedagogical beliefs of teachers.
With that said, the potential of technology to enhance learning cannot be overemphasized. The use of technology is something that started a long time ago for students with special needs. For example, brail machines have been utilized for the visually impaired. In addition, special needs programs that help children with autism use technology to enhance learning. By integrating technology into education, educators aim to engender pedagogical change and address fundamental issues that affect learners with special needs. Technology can therefore be seen as both a tool and a catalyst for change.
Q. 5 Write notes on the followings:
Education and Literacy
In a broader sense, literacy refers to a person’s ability to read, write, speak and listen in a way that allows clear and effective communication. However, the perceptions of literacy may vary from one culture to another. For instance, within the writing traditions of the English language, marks an extremely required skill of literacy, whereas this might not be required by communities who rarely read printed material.
If you are a student, you need literacy to deal with your life on a daily basis. If you lack literacy skills, you won’t be able to do well at school, you will be cut off from the job market, and as a parent, you won’t get a chance to help your own child with his school work. Above all, if you are a well literate person, you will be able to communicate clearly and effectively, get updated with current events and understand the issues that are molding our world