Course: Curriculum Development (6406) Semester: Autumn, 2022
Level: ADE / B.Ed. (4 Years)
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q. 1 How did Travers classified independent variables?
Each person/thing we collect data on is called an OBSERVATION (in our work these are usually people/subjects. Currently, the term participant rather than subject is used when describing the people from whom we collect data).
OBSERVATIONS (participants) possess a variety of CHARACTERISTICS.
If a CHARACTERISTIC of an OBSERVATION (participant) is the same for every member of the group (doesn’t vary) it is called a CONSTANT.
If a CHARACTERISTIC of an OBSERVATION (participant) differs for group members it is called a VARIABLE. In research we don’t get excited about CONSTANTS (since everyone is the same on that characteristic); we’re more interested in VARIABLES. Variables can be classified as QUANTITATIVE or QUALITATIVE (also known as CATEGORICAL).
QUANTITATIVE variables are ones that exist along a continuum that runs from low to high. Ordinal, interval, and ratio variables are quantitative. QUANTITATIVE variables are sometimes called CONTINUOUS VARIABLES because they have a variety (continuum) of characteristics. Height in inches and scores on a test would be examples of quantitative variables.
QUALITATIVE variables do not express differences in amount, only differences. They are sometimes referred to as CATEGORICAL variables because they classify by categories. Nominal variables such as gender, religion, or eye color are CATEGORICAL variables. Generally speaking, categorical variables
Q. 2 Write 5 lesson plans using five different methods of teaching. Give the situation in which each of them should be used.
The list of teaching methodologies you could use with elementary-aged students is a long one. An approach effective for one teacher may not necessarily be useful for another because every method uses different tools and techniques for achieving common educational goals. That’s why many teachers try to extract some ideas from different approaches, mixing and incorporating them into one unique teaching approach depending on the students’ and school’s needs and other circumstances.
Besides that, keep in mind that no matter which of the methods listed below a teacher chooses, nowadays it seems quite difficult to implement any approach without relying on technology. That is one of the reasons why Happy Numbers was created: to help teachers incorporate their ideas into one digitally-guided learning experience and let students benefit from it, without losing their interest.
Are you ready to learn more about some of the best methods of teaching? Check out our list and analysis below to learn which methods have the research to back them up:
Q. 3 Study a document of national curriculum. Analyze its strengths and weakness.
One system of Education for all, in terms of curriculum, medium of instruction and a common platform of assessment so that all children have a fair and equal opportunity to receive high quality education. Single National Curriculum is a step in that direction.
One system of Education for all, in terms of curriculum, medium of instruction and a common platform of assessment which will ensure:
· All children have a fair and equal opportunity to receive high quality education
· Social Cohesion and National Integration
· Alleviation of disparities in education content across the multiple streams
· Equal opportunities for upward social mobility
· Equity in education
· Holistic development of children in the light of emerging international trends and local aspirations
· Smooth inter-provincial mobility of teachers and students
Q. 4 Explain the steps involved in formulation of curriculum objectives.
“Curriculum is a tool in the hands of the artist (teacher) to mould his material (student0 in his studio (school).” – Cunnigham
The curriculum development process systematically organizes what will be taught, who will be taught, and how it will be taught. Each component affects and interacts with other components.
Definition of Curriculum Development
Curriculum development is defined as planned, a purposeful, progressive, and systematic process to create positive improvements in the educational system. Every time there are changes or developments happening around the world, the school curricula are affected. There is a need to update them to address the society’s needs.
Curriculum development has a broad scope because it is not only about the school, the learners, and the teachers. It is also about the development of society in general.
In today’s knowledge economy, curriculum development plays a vital role in improving the economy of a country. It also provides answers or solutions to the world’s pressing conditions and problems, such as environment, politics, socio-economics, and other issues of poverty, climate change, and sustainable development.
Q. 5 Describe the problem cantered and core design.
A problem-centred curriculum has its philosophical roots in constructivism, whereby knowledge is built through the students’ active participation in the learning process. A problem-centred curriculum places learning in the context of real-world problems that make students want to solve them. Problem-centred curriculum models take a ‘learner-centered approach that empowers learners to conduct research, integrate theory and practice, and apply knowledge and skills to develop a viable solution to a defined problem.’.
Casey and Tucker (1994) suggest the purpose of a problem-centred curriculum is to develop effective learners, which they define as students who are able to solve problems and harness their creativity through their planning and organisational skills. The purpose, therefore, of a problem-centred curriculum is to develop creative problem solvers who:
- are constantly curious and questioning
- enjoy figuring things out
- seek out challenges
- are persistent
- are resourceful and flexible
- are independent learners
- feel confident about themselves as learners
- are risk-takers.