Assignment No. 1
Q.1 Classify the research on basis of its purpose and explain each type of research in detail. (20)
- CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHOD (WEEK 7&8) BY DR.SHAZIA ZAMIR
- 2. Contents Classification of Research by Purpose – Basic v/s Applied research – Research and development – Evaluative research Classification of Research by Method – Historical research – Descriptive research – Experimental research
- 3. Classification of Research by Purpose Basic v/s Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).
- 4. Classification of Research by Purpose Research and development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
- 5. Classification of Research by Purpose Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions
- 6. Classification of Research by Method Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
- 7. Classification of Research by Method Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
- 8. Classification of Research by Method Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook.
Types of Research By Purpose
Research is systematic way to find out facts and knowledge. There are two types of research, one is by method and other is by purpose. The types of research by purpose fall into three categories such as Basic, Applied and Action Research.
Q.2 How experimental research is different from descriptive research? Discuss in detail. (20)
Q.3 What are historical sources? Keeping in mind them, discuss historical criticism in detail. (20)
Q.4 Discuss different methods used as a tool of acquiring knowledge. Compare the various steps in scientific method with steps in research process? (20)
Q.5 Distinguish experimental research from non-experimental research. What are different experimental designs that can be used to address the educational issues?