AIOU Course Code 8603-1 Solved Assignment Spring 2022

B.ED (1.5 Year), (2.5 Year), (4 Year) Solved Assignments

Assignment No. 1

Note: Attempt all questions. Please avoid reproducing form books, your own analysis and synthesis will be welcome

(Units: 1-5)
Q. 1 Critically analyze the process of educational planning in the implementation of curriculum in Pakistan. (20)

EDUCATIONAL PLANNING PROCESS

It’s the process of laying out a logical structure called a plan.

  • It is cyclic in nature i.e.
  • It varies from one country to another due to:
  1. Degree to which the education plan forms the integral part of the economic plan
  2. The weakness or strength of the statistical services
  3. The features of the school systems-both private and public
  4. The weakness or strength of the statistical services

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Q.2 Analyze variuos models of objectives and develop a model for Pakistan. (20)

The model objectives are the maximization of ENPV and the minimization of financial risk. To assess risk, four different risk measures were used and compared: variance, variability index, downside risk and conditional value-at-risk. Choosing the most adequate risk measure depends on the decision maker.

The Objectives Model The objectives model of curriculum design contains content that is based on specific objectives. These objectives should specify expected learning outcomes in terms of specific measurable behaviours.


Q.3 How does and to what extent a social and economic diversities affect curriculum development? Discuss in detail. (20)

The term curriculum may be defined in many different ways: as a subject matter, or a set of rules and experiences, which help to choose the best way of development, or a plan that has to be followed.

Jon Wiles (2008) explains curriculum as “a set of desired goals or values that are activated through a development process and culminate in successful learning experiences for students” (p.2).

Curriculum development is an integral function that depends on numerous political, economical, social, technological, and psychological factors. Right now, political (political instability) and technological (variety of innovations) factors affective curriculum development will be evaluated.

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Q.4 What is the impact of instructional technology on the development of curriculum in Pakistan? (20)

The term „curriculum‟ signified a course of studies followed by a pupil in a teaching institution. Presently, it means, generally speaking, the contract between society, the State and educational professionals with regard to the educational activities that learners should undergo during a certain phase of their lives to learn something desirable. Standard dictionaries define curriculum as a course of study offered by an academic institution. Joseph (2011) described that the curriculum is formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills, and alter attitudes, appreciations, and values under the auspices/ of an academic institution. In other words, curriculum can be defined as the total experience.

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Q.5 Critically review the existing schemes of studies at secondary level of education. How schemes of studies are developed and processed in our country after 18th constitutional amendment? (20)

Scheme of Studies: The scheme of studies means the courses/syllabi prescribed at different levels of education. The scheme of studies is given as follows:

  • Primary Level: The subjects at the primary level are regional languages, Urdu, Counting, Simple Arithmetic, Nature Study and Islamiyat.
  • Middle Level: The subjects at the middle level are regional languages, Urdu, English, Algebra, Geometry, Science, Social Studies, and Islamiyat.
  • Secondary Level: The subjects at the secondary level are Urdu, English, Islamiyat, Pakistan studies – compulsory subjects for all groups. Humanities group students study General Science and Mathematics as additional compulsory subjects and two optional subjects of their choice.

18th Constitutional amendment

At present, the following schemes targeted at secondary stage (i.e. class IX to XII) are being implemented in the form of Centrally Sponsored Schemes:

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