AIOU Course Code 5403-1 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

Course: Basics of ICT (5403).                    

 Level: Associate Degree/ Bachelor

Assignment no 1.

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Question no 1..

(a) Define Information & Communication Technologies. Also down at least ten practical application of ICT in the fields of education. sports, media and entertainment.

Answer.

Information Communication Technology (ICT) is a term that describes types of technology that are used specifically for communications.” It is like Information Technology, but ICT focuses more on technologies that deal with communication, like cell phones, the Internet and wireless networks, among other things. Because of the convergence of the two technologies in the sense that we increasingly use digital data to communicate, a new term has been coined: information and communication technology (ITC). Today we use computers to call, each other and telephones to process data and send emails

Practical applications of ICT

ICT in heavy industry:

ICT in heavy industry is not just in managing the business, but also the data created in the industry. The computer controlled systems, that monitor temperature and pressure and alert, reort or adjust input levels to produce a chemical compound is ICT.

ICT in automobiles

There is ICT in automobiles, all these new electronic features are computer controlled. That is ICT.

Monitor and control devices

Everything now is networked via the Internet, and you can monitor and control devices remotely using ICT e. g. a security system in your home

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Science and research

Science and research uses ICT, to process large amount of data to support research findings. Applications are endless. ICT is an integral part of modern life.

Applications of ICT

The field of Information Communication Technology has taken off in the last decade. Developed countries have a higher use of ICT, but developing countries have made significant increases in use over the last five years. At the end of 2008, the world had more than 4 billion mobile phone users, and close to one-fourth of the world’s population had access to the Internet. Utilitarian Objectives One of the main aims of ICT is to help students to become competent and confident users who can use the basic knowledge and skills acquired to assist them in their daily lives. It is also supposed to prepare students for the world of tomorrow. It aims to help learners to have an open and flexible mind. This will help them to adjust to the inevitable future changes.

Social Aims of ICT It aims to equip learners with the appropriate social skills required to cooperate with fellow ICT learners for a more productive learning experience. It empowers students who are unable to use this technology outside the school premises by ensuring sufficient access to those students. Through this, it will also ensure equity among all learners, as they will all have the same opportunities to use the ICT facilities in school. Another social objective of ICT is to facilitate good communication between the students, thus promoting better social understanding. ICT aims to assist students to appreciate the beauty and diversity of culture. It also aims to help students become well-cultured citizens of the modern world.

Many people are using these programs to get degrees that they would not have been able to receive without ICT. It also aims to allow the public to easily access the necessary information over the Internet. Regulations Americans enjoys relative freedom in the use of ICT, but other governments are struggling to regulate its use. Information Technology Information technology refers to devices (hardware) and algorithms or programs (software) used to store, retrieve and process data. In simple terms, it refers to all computer applications and devices.

Communication Technology In the modern sense of the term, communication technology includes electronic systems used for communication between individuals or groups not physically present at the same location. It is about ways people can talk or write to each other and exchange messages, pictures or sounds. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has a major impact on business operations.

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Business operators and the ICT department are now able to become innovative and discover new ways to make Information and Communication technology work for them. Media outlets, such as CNN and Bloomberg, present and analyze statistical information daily.

Features Communications technology lowers expenses and improves liquidity for the overall market. Liquidity is synonymous with one’s ability to raise cash on demand. For example, stock traders place sell orders with information technology to quickly receive cash for their investments

 

B.What is a computer? Explain the advantages of computer in daily life.

computer is a machine or device that performs processes, calculations and operations based on instructions provided by a software or hardware program. It has the ability to accept data (input), process it, and then produce outputs. Computers can also store data for later uses in appropriate storage devices, and retrieve whenever it is necessary.

Modern computers are electronic devices used for a variety of purposes ranging from browsing the web, writing documents, editing videos, creating applications, playing video games, etc. They are designed to execute applications and provide a variety of solutions by combining integrated hardware and software components

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The use of computers on a regular basis in our life is very important. Technically in daily life computer is used to convert raw facts and data into meaningful information and knowledge.

Computer science is explored and challenged by humans daily. The computer is like an electronic magical device for our life.

According to Google Keyword Planner 100 – 1K people searching monthly on Google about ” best laptop for business and personal use” and 100-1K for the best desktop computer for small businesses in the last 1 year. This is one of the proofs that the use of the computer in our life and business is really effective. That’s why more and more people are buying and using a computer.Importance of computer in our daily life

You can understand and analyze the importance of computers by seeing a revolution in offline and online business, online education, online communication, and internet banking. To store, access, manipulate, calculate, analyze data and information we use hardware devices and software applications.

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All our daily life activities are based on such online services and products. The computer changed our life 2 decades ago and now it is a necessity to use a computer in daily life to live.

Advantages of computer

There are 20 + Advantage of computer with picture is following below.

* Speed.                       * Accurac.                               * Storage

* Versatility.                * Automatic.                            * Diligence

* Reliable.                    * Cost effective.                      * Multitasking of Computer

* Keep Your Entertained.                                              * Save Your Time

* Get Information.                                                          * Can Make Money

* Data store Capability.                                                  * Connect on the internet to get all things

* Product Employment.                                                   * Problem Solves by using Internet

* Increase job opportunity.                           * Advantages of Computer in Education

* Advantages of Computer in Business.              * Advantages of Computer in Office

* Advantages of Computer in Our Daily Life

* Advantages of Computers For Students

* Advantages of Computer in Banking Sector

Question no 2.   Differentiate the following: –

(a) Image Scanner & Data Scanner

Image Scanner..

Image scanner is a device which scan pictures,text  or objects and converts them mto digital images. The basic types of image scanners are flat bed, hand, film and drum scanners. Flatbed scanners are what we  call Xerox machines ,in which an object ordocument is place donaglass paneand an opaqueco veris low eredoverit. As ensoran dlight moves along the pane,reflecting of the image place don the glass.The cover prevents otherlight frominter fering and thei mage becomes visible to the detector. Once an image is scanned into an images canner ,the data  must be process edands enttoa computer.Most scanners read red-green-blue colorfromthecolorarray.The Depthofcolordependsonthearray Characteristics,butistypically24bitsatleast.Higherqualitymodelshaveacolordepthof48bitsormore.Thepixelsperinchmeasurestheresolutionoftheimage.

There are three main types of image scanners. These are hand scanners, film scanners and drumscanners .A hand image scanner comesin document or 3D forms. These are used to be manually moved acrossanobjectorimagetobescanned.

Photo copiers use flatbed scanner to capture an image,then it can be reprinted.

The scanner produces light from green LEDs which highlight and scan the image on to a computer to be viewed.  An image scanner can alsobe 3D ,andthese scanners are now the most popular form of hand scanners on the market today. These image scanners are able to compensae for the un even movements of the hand byre lying on placement reference markerstomarkcorrectpositions.

 

Data Scanner

Scanner data are the data recorded by the retailers when consumers make purchases. They include, for each article sold in a store on a given day, the quantity of articles sold and the sales price.  They are transmitted daily by the retail chains to Insee.

These data are used in the compilation of the Consumer Price Index or in research on this indicator.

Context:

Scanner data constitute a rapidly expanding source of data with considerable potential for CPI purposes. They are also being used increasingly for purposes of hedonic analysis.

Source Publication:

ILO, IMF, OECD, Eurostat, UNECE, World Bank, 2004, Consumer Price Index Manual: Theory and Practice, International Labour Office, Geneva.

 

(b) Drum Printer & pen Plotter

Drum printer                                                                   pen printer

An impact printer in which a complete set of characters for each print position on a line is on a continuously rotating drum behind an inked ribbon, with paper in front of the ribbon; identical characters are printed simultaneously at all required positions on a line, on the fly, by signal-controlled hammers.

(1) A wide-format inkjet printer. The paper is taped onto a drum for precise alignment to the nozzles.

(2) An old line printer technology that used formed character images around a cylindrical drum as its printing mechanism. When the desired character for the selected position rotated around to the hammer line, the hammer hit the paper from behind and pushed it into the ribbon and onto the character.

 

A Pen Printer is real full function printer, it uses the pen’s ink as the ink cartridges for the printer. The Pen Printer is very small in size, it can easily fit in your bag, briefcase, etc. A Pen Printer is also a way to recycle because whenever our pen is out of ink we will throw it away, but you can still refill the pen’s ink if it is out of ink for the Pen Printer.

The advantages of pen printer is that they are small in size, light and portable, unlike normal printer. Pen Printer can have high quality printouts too, they are also very convenient.

Pen plotters print by moving a pen or other instrument across the surface of a piece of paper. This means that plotters are vector graphics devices, rather than raster graphics as with other printers

 

 

(c) LCD &LED Monitors

LED LCD
In the simplest terms, a light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits light when an electric current is passed through it. Light is produced when the particles that carry the current (known as electrons and holes) combine together within the semiconductor material.

Since light is generated within the solid semiconductor material, LEDs are described as solid-state devices. The term solid-state lighting, which also encompasses organic LEDs (OLEDs), distinguishes this lighting technology from other sources that use heated filaments (incandescent and tungsten halogen lamps) or gas discharge (fluorescent lamps).

Different colors

Inside the semiconductor material of the LED, the electrons and holes are contained within energy bands. The separation of the bands (i.e. the bandgap) determines the energy of the photons (light particles) that are emitted by the LED.

The photon energy determines the wavelength of the emitted light, and hence its color. Different semiconductor materials with different bandgaps produce different colors of light. The precise wavelength (color) can be tuned by altering the composition of the light-emitting, or active, region.

LEDs are comprised of compound semiconductor materials, which are made up of elements from group III and group V of the periodic table (these are known as III-V materials). Examples of III-V materials commonly used to make LEDs are gallium arsenide (GaAs) and gallium phosphide (GaP).

 

Until the mid-90s LEDs had a limited range of colors, and in particular commercial blue and white LEDs did not exist. The development of LEDs based on the gallium nitride (GaN) material system completed the palette of colors and opened up many new applications.

Main LED materials

The main semiconductor materials used to manufacture LEDs are:

Indium gallium nitride (InGaN): blue, green and ultraviolet high-brightness LEDs

Aluminum gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP): yellow, orange and red high-brightness LEDs

Aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs): red and infrared LEDs

Gallium phosphide (GaP): yellow and green LEDs

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is a type of flat panel display which uses liquid crystals in its primary form of operation. LEDs have a large and varying set of use cases for consumers and businesses, as they can be commonly found in smartphones, televisions, computer monitors and instrument panels.

 

LCDs were a big leap in terms of the technology they replaced, which include light-emitting diode (LED) and gas-plasma displays. LCDs allowed displays to be much thinner than cathode ray tube (CRT) technology. LCDs consume much less power than LED and gas-display displays because they work on the principle of blocking light rather than emitting it. Where an LED emits light, the liquid crystals in an LCD produces an image using a backlight.

 

As LCDs have replaced older display technologies, LCDs have begun being replaced by new display technologies such as OLEDs.

OLEDs use a single glass or plastic panels, compared to LCDs which use two. Because an OLED does not need a backlight like an LCD, OLED devices such as televisions are typically much thinner, and have much deeper blacks, as each pixel in an OLED display is individually lit. If the display is mostly black in an LCD screen, but only a small portion needs to be lit, the whole back panel is still lit, leading to light leakage on the front of the display. An OLED screen avoids this, along with having better contrast and viewing angles and less power consumption. With a plastic panel, an OLED display can be bent and folded over itself and still operate. This can be seen in smartphones, such as the controversial Galaxy Fold; or in the iPhone X, which will bend the bottom of the display over itself so the display’s ribbon cable can reach in towards the phone, eliminating the need for a bottom bezel.

 

However, OLED displays tend to be more expensive and can suffer from burn-in, as plasma-based displays do.

 

(d) Large Venue Projectors Home Cinema Projector

LargeVenueProjectors                                      HomeCinemaProjectors

Large venue projectors are very different to those used in offices or meeting rooms. First of all they are considerably larger and significantly brighter (they start at 6000 ansi lumens) than office projectors. They also have features dedicated to producing images on a large scale such as on board edge-blending and stacking capabilities.

Large venue professional projectors also feature horizontal and vertical lens shift as well as a fleet of optional lenses available which allow you to create your desired image regardless of the environment.

Check out our most popular large venue projectors to see the models our customers are buying based on price vs specification. Laser large venue projectors offer you the added benefit of 24/7 use with no costly lamp replacements. Need to project large scale images with finite detail and clarity? Check out our 4K large venue projector page.

 Home Cinema

Demand the best. Engineered for discerning viewers, Optoma’s premium home cinema projectors set a new standard for image quality and color accuracy with flexible options for installation and connection with home theater systems..

Product Filter

Brightness

2,000 LED Lumens; 1500 ANSI Lumens(1)

2200 ANSI Lumens(1)

2400 ANSI Lumens(2)

Show more

Resolution

4K UHD 3840×2160(6)

Aspect ratio

16:9 Native, 4:3 and LBX Compatible(3)

16:9 Native, 4:3 Compatible(3)

Question no 3.

(a) Discuss the classification of computer with examples. Also explain the types of memory in details.

We see many Computers nearby, But they all are different from each other. In this article, we are going to know about the basics and classification of computers which included all the different types of computers.

There are different classes of computer technology available these days. The functionality and data processing of each type of computer is different and output results as well.

However, the methods or techniques, Size, capacity, characteristics, and data handling of the data of each computer may be different too. Let’s Get to Know the “What are the Classifications of Computers System“:-

We can classify the computers into the following 3 categories:

Classifications of Computers System:-

On the Basis of Size and Capacity, [Supercomputer, Mainframe, Mini, and Micro Computer].

On the Basis of Purposes, [General and Special Purpose].

On the Basis of Hardware Design and Type [Analog, Digital, and Hybrid Computer.

Computer scan is broadly classified by their speed and computing power.

Type

Specifications

1 PC (Personal Computer) or Micro-Computers

It is a single user computer system having a moderately powerful microprocessor. It is termed as a computer that is equipped microprocessor as its CPU.

2 Workstation

It is also a single user computer system, similar to the personal computer, however, has a more powerful microprocessor.

3 Mini-Computer

It is a multi-user computer system, capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously.

4 Main Frame

It is a multi-user computer system, capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously. Software technology is different from minicomputer.

  1. Super-Computer

It is an extremely fast computer, which can execute hundreds of millions of instructions per second.

 

B…What is the importance of Port in computer system? Enlist different ports of computers.

 

Computer ports are an essential feature of all computing devices. Ports provide the input and output interfaces the device needs to communicate with peripherals and computer networks.

The most important ports on computers are used for networking, for without them, the computer would be completely isolated and unable to communicate outside of itself.

Issues With Ports in Computer Networking

Computer ports are an essential feature of all computing devices. Ports provide the input and output interfaces the device needs to communicate with peripherals and computer networks.

The most important ports on computers are used for networking, for without them, the computer would be completely isolated and unable to communicate outside of itself.

Computer ports labeled, like Serial Port, USB Type-A, Power, and more

Lifewire / Kyle Fewel

Physical Ports

A port can be either physical or virtual. Physical network ports allow you to connect cables to computers, routers, modems, and other peripheral devices. Ports are physically connected in one way or another to the motherboard.

Several types of physical ports available on computer network hardware include:

Ethernet ports: Square-shaped connection points for Ethernet cables.

USB ports: Rectangular-shaped connection points for USB cables.

Serial ports: Round-shaped connection points for serial cables.

Ports in Wireless Networking

While wired computer networks rely on physical ports and cables, wireless networks don’t need them. Wi-Fi networks, for example, use channel numbers representing radio signaling bands.

Internet Protocol Ports

Virtual ports are an essential component of Internet Protocol (IP) networking. These ports allow software applications to share hardware resources without interfering with each other.

Computers and routers automatically manage network traffic traveling via their virtual ports. Network firewalls also provide some control over the flow of traffic on each virtual port for security purposes.

In IP networking, these virtual ports are structured via port numbers, from 0 through 65535. For example, port 80 lets you access websites through your web browser, and port 21 is associated with FTP.

Issues With Ports in Computer Networking

Physical ports can stop functioning for several reasons. Causes of port failure include:

Power surges (for devices physically connected to electric mains).

Water damage.

Internal failure.

Damage caused by the cable pins (for example, inserting cables too forcefully or by attempting to plug the wrong type of cable into a port).

Except for damage to pins, a physical inspection of the port hardware won’t find anything obviously wrong. A failure of one port on a multiport device (such as a network router) doesn’t affect the functioning of the other ports.

The speed and specification level of a physical port can also not be determined by physical inspection. Some Ethernet devices, for example, operate at a maximum of 100 Mbps, while others support Gigabit Ethernet, but the physical connector is the same in both cases. Similarly, some USB connectors support version 3.0 while others only support USB 2.x or sometimes USB 1.x.

The most common challenge with virtual ports is network security. Internet attackers regularly probe the ports of websites, routers, and any other network gateways. A network firewall helps guard against these attacks by limiting access to ports based on their number.

To be most effective, a firewall tends to be overprotective and will sometimes block traffic that a person wanted to allow. Methods for configuring the rules that firewalls use to process traffic—such as port forwarding rules—can be complicated for non-professionals to manage.

 

Question no 4…What do you mean by point and draw devices? Enlist and describe them briefly with the help of diagrams.

A pointing device is an input interface that allows a user to input spatial (i.e., continuous and multi-dimensional) data to a computer. CAD systems and graphical user interfaces (GUI) allow the user to control and provide data to the computer using physical gestures by moving a hand-held mouse or similar device across the surface of the physical desktop and activating switches on the mouse. Movements of the pointing device are echoed on the screen by movements of the pointer (or cursor) and other visual changes. Common gestures are  point and click and drag and drop.

Mouse:

A mouse moves the graphical pointer by being slid across a smooth surface. The conventional roller-ball mouse uses a ball to create this action: the ball is in contact with two small shafts that are set at right angles to each other. As the ball moves these shafts rotate, and the rotation is measured by sensors within the mouse. The distance and direction information from the sensors is then transmitted to the computer, and the computer moves the graphical pointer on the screen by following the movements of the mouse.

 

 

Optical Mouse:-

Another common mouse is the optical mouse. This device is very similar to the conventional mouse but uses visible or infrared light instead of a roller-ball to detect the changes in position.

Mini-mouse:-

A mini-mouse is a small egg-sized mouse for use with laptop computers; usually small enough for use on a free area of the laptop body itself, it is typically optical, includes a retractable cord and uses a USB port to save battery life.

Trackball:

A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball held by a socket containing sensors to detect a rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse with an exposed protruding ball. The user rolls the ball with the thumb, fingers, or the palm of the hand to move a pointer.

Compared with a mouse, a trackball has no limits on effective travel; at times, a mouse can reach an edge of its working area while the operator still wishes to move the screen pointer farther. With a trackball, the operator just continues rolling, whereas a mouse would have to be lifted and re-positioned.

Joystick:-

A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. A joystick, also known as the control column,Joysticks are often used to control video games, and usually have one or more push-buttons whose state can also be read by the computer. A popular variation of the joystick used on modern video game consoles is the analog stick. Joysticks are also used for controlling machines such as cranes, trucks, underwater unmanned vehicles, wheelchairs, surveillance cameras, and zero turning radius lawn mowers.

Analog Stick:-

An analog stick, sometimes called a control stick, joy stick or thumbstick, is an input device for a controller (often a game controller) that is used for three-dimensional input. An analog stick is a variation of a joystick, consisting of a protrusion from the controller; input is based on the position of this protrusion in relation to the default “center” position. While digital sticks rely on single electrical connections for movement (using internal digital electrical contacts for up, down, left and right), analog sticks use continuous electrical activity running through potentiometers. The analog stick has greatly overtaken the D-pad in both prominence and usage in console video games.

Pointing Stick:-

A pointing stick is an isometric joystick used as a pointing device, as with a touchpad or trackball, and typically mounted in a computer keyboard. Movements of the pointing stick are echoed on the screen by movements of the pointer (or cursor) and other visual changes.

The pointing stick operates by sensing applied force, by using a pair of resistive strain gauges. A pointing stick can be used by pushing with the fingers in the general direction the user wants the cursor to move. The velocity of the pointer depends on the applied force so increasing pressure causes faster movement.

Stylus:-

A stylus is a small pen-shaped instrument that is used to input commands to a computer screen, mobile device or graphics tablet.

The stylus is the primary input device for personal digital assistants and smartphones that require accurate input, although devices featuring multi-touch finger-input with capacitive touchscreens are becoming more popular than stylus-driven devices in the smartphone market.

Touch pad:-

A touchpad or trackpad is a flat surface that can detect finger contact. It is a stationary pointing device, commonly used on laptop computers. At least one physical button normally comes with the touchpad, but the user can also generate a mouse click by tapping on the pad. Advanced features include pressure sensitivity and special gestures such as scrolling by moving one’s finger along an edge.

 

 Light pen:-

A light pen is a device similar to a touch screen, but uses a special light-sensitive pen instead of the finger, which allows for more accurate screen input. As the tip of the light pen makes contact with the screen, it sends a signal back to the computer containing the coordinates of the pixels at that point. It can be used to draw on the computer screen or make menu selections, and does not require a special touch screen because it can work with any CRT display.

  Touch Screen:-

A touchscreen is a device embedded into the screen of the TV monitor, or system LCD monitor screens of laptop computers. Users interact with the device by physically pressing items shown on the screen, either with their fingers or some helping tool.A touchscreen is a device embedded into the screen of the TV monitor, or system LCD monitor screens of laptop computers. Users interact with the device by physically pressing items shown on the screen, either with their fingers or some helping tool.

 

 

B…Explain the purpose of speech recognition device.

speech recognition

Speech recognition, also known as automatic speech recognition (ASR), computer speech recognition, or speech-to-text, is a capability which enables a program to process human speech into a written format. While it’s commonly confused with voice recognition, speech recognition focuses on the translation of speech from a verbal format to a text one whereas voice recognition just seeks to identify an individual user’s voice.

IBM has had a prominent role within speech recognition since its inception, releasing of “Shoebox” in 1962. This machine had the ability to recognize 16 different words, advancing the initial work from Bell Labs from the 1950s. However, IBM didn’t stop there, but continued to innovate over the years, launching VoiceType Simply Speaking application in 1996. This speech recognition software had a 42,000-word vocabulary, supported English and Spanish, and included a spelling dictionary of 100,000 words. While speech technology had a limited vocabulary in the early days, it is utilized in a wide number of industries today, such as automotive, technology, and healthcare. Its adoption has only continued to accelerate in recent years due to advancements in deep learning and big data. Research (link resides outside IBM) shows that this market is expected to be worth $24.9 billion by 2025.

Key features of effective speech recognition

Many speech recognition applications and devices are available, but the more advanced solutions use AI and machine learning. They integrate grammar, syntax, structure, and composition of audio and voice signals to understand and process human speech. Ideally, they learn as they go — evolving responses with each interaction.

The best kind of systems also allow organizations to customize and adapt the technology to their specific requirements — everything from language and nuances of speech to brand recognition. For example:

Language weighting: Improve precision by weighting specific words that are spoken frequently (such as product names or industry jargon), beyond terms already in the base vocabulary.

Speaker labeling: Output a transcription that cites or tags each speaker’s contributions to a multi-participant conversation.

Acoustics training: Attend to the acoustical side of the business. Train the system to adapt to an acoustic environment (like the ambient noise in a call center) and speaker styles (like voice pitch, volume and pace).

Profanity filtering: Use filters to identify certain words or phrases and sanitize speech output.

Meanwhile, speech recognition continues to advance. Companies, like IBM, are making inroads in several areas, the better to improve human and machine interaction.

Speech recognition algorithms

The vagaries of human speech have made development challenging. It’s considered to be one of the most complex areas of computer science – involving linguistics, mathematics and statistics. Speech recognizers are made up of a few components, such as the speech input, feature extraction, feature vectors, a decoder, and a word output. The decoder leverages acoustic models, a pronunciation dictionary, and language models to determine the appropriate output.

Speech recognition technology is evaluated on its accuracy rate, i.e. word error rate (WER), and speed. A number of factors can impact word error rate, such as pronunciation, accent, pitch, volume, and background noise. Reaching human parity – meaning an error rate on par with that of two humans speaking – has long been the goal of speech recognition systems. Research from Lippmann (link resides outside IBM) (PDF, 344 KB) estimates the word error rate to be around 4 percent, but it’s been difficult to replicate the results from this paper.

Read more on how IBM has made strides in this respect, achieving industry records in the field of speech recognition.

Various algorithms and computation techniques are used to recognize speech into text and improve the accuracy of transcription. Below are brief explanations of some of the most commonly used methods:

Natural language processing (NLP): While NLP isn’t necessarily a specific algorithm used in speech recognition, it is the area of artificial intelligence which focuses on the interaction between humans and machines through language through speech and text. Many mobile devices incorporate speech recognition into their systems to conduct voice search—e.g. Siri—or provide more accessibility around texting.

Hidden markov models (HMM): Hidden Markov Models build on the Markov chain model, which stipulates that the probability of a given state hinges on the current state, not its prior states. While a Markov chain model is useful for observable events, such as text inputs, hidden markov models allow us to incorporate hidden events, such as part-of-speech tags, into a probabilistic model. They are utilized as sequence models within speech recognition, assigning labels to each unit—i.e. words, syllables, sentences, etc.—in the sequence. These labels create a mapping with the provided input, allowing it to determine the most appropriate label sequence.

N-grams: This is the simplest type of language model (LM), which assigns probabilities to sentences or phrases. An N-gram is sequence of N-words. For example, “order the pizza” is a trigram or 3-gram and “please order the pizza” is a 4-gram. Grammar and the probability of certain word sequences are used to improve recognition and accuracy.

Neural networks: Primarily leveraged for deep learning algorithms, neural networks process training data by mimicking the interconnectivity of the human brain through layers of nodes. Each node is made up of inputs, weights, a bias (or threshold) and an output. If that output value exceeds a given threshold, it “fires” or activates the node, passing data to the next layer in the network. Neural networks learn this mapping function through supervised learning, adjusting based on the loss function through the process of gradient descent.  While neural networks tend to be more accurate and can accept more data, this comes at a performance efficiency cost as they tend to be slower to train compared to traditional language models.

Speaker Diarization (SD): Speaker diarization algorithms identify and segment speech by speaker identity. This helps programs better distinguish individuals in a conversation and is frequently applied at call centers distinguishing customers and sales agents.

Read on the Watson blog how IBM leverages SD models within their Speech to Text services.

Speech recognition use cases

A wide number of industries are utilizing different applications of speech technology today, helping businesses and consumers save time and even lives. Some examples include:

Automotive: Speech recognizers improves driver safety by enabling voice-activated navigation systems and search capabilities in car radios.

Technology: Virtual assistants are increasingly becoming integrated within our daily lives, particularly on our mobile devices. We use voice commands to access them through our smartphones, such as through Google Assistant or Apple’s Siri, for tasks, such as voice search, or through our speakers, via Amazon’s Alexa or Microsoft’s Cortana, to play music. They’ll only continue to integrate into the everyday products that we use, fueling the “Internet of Things” movement.

Healthcare: Doctors and nurses leverage dictation applications to capture and log patient diagnoses and treatment notes.

Sales: Speech recognition technology has a couple of applications in sales. It can help a call center transcribe thousands of phone calls between customers and agents to identify common call patterns and issues. Cognitive bots can also talk to people via a webpage, answering common queries and solving basic requests without needing to wait for a contact center agent to be available. It both instances speech recognition systems help reduce time to resolution for consumer issues.

Security: As technology integrates into our daily lives, security protocols are an increasing priority. Voice-based authentication adds a viable level of security. Learn more how companies, such as Audioburst, are leveraging speech recognition software to index audio from radio stations and podcasts in real-time on our blog here.

Speech Recognition and IBM

IBM has pioneered the development of Speech Recognition tools and services that enable organizations to automate their complex business processes while gaining essential business insights.

IBM Watson Speech to Text is a cloud-native solution that uses deep-learning AI algorithms to apply knowledge about grammar, language structure, and audio/voice signal composition to create customizable speech recognition for optimal text transcription.

IBM Watson Text to Speech generates human-like audio from written text, increasing customer engagement and satisfaction by improving accessibility across languages and interaction modalities.

For more information on how

to get started with speech recognition technology, explore IBM Watson Speech to Text and IBM Watson Text to Speech.

Question no 5….

Describe any three input and three output devices with examples.

Input devices.                                                             output devices

Input devices are the devices that take the data from the outside world and send it to the computer processor for further processing. Input devices control the data signals of an information processing system. One major distinction between an output and an input device is that input devices send data to the processor while output devices receive data from the processor.

mode of the input

Input devices can be distinguished easily based on the mode of the input. The various modes can be audio, visual, textual, mechanical, etc. The examples include a camera (visual), microphone (audio), touchpad (mechanical), etc.

2. On the basis of the nature of the input

The input given to the computer can be either continuous or discontinuous. For example, a touchscreen possesses both continuous and discrete form of input, scrolling a touchscreen is continuous while typing on a touch screen is discontinuous.

3. On the basis of the degree of freedom

The number of degrees of freedom can be used to group the input devices. The input on this basis can be 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional. The two-dimensional or 2D input includes sound input to the mic, image input to the computer, etc. However, 3D input is usually used in virtual reality-based simulations.

A device is said to be an output device if it takes the electronic data from the computer and translates it into a form that is easily understandable to the user. In simple words, output devices receive information from the computer and convert it into a format that is desired by the user

1.. Data Output Devices

The result of data output devices is readable and understandable by the user, but it can not be accessed otherwise. Such type of output is generally textual by nature. For example, GPS, etc.

 

2.. Print Output Devices

The devices that provide a printed hard copy of the electronic data processed by the computer are called print output devices. For example, printer, braille reader, plotter, etc.

 

3.. Sound Output Devices

The hardware equipment used to get the information from the computer in audio formats is called sound output device. For example, headphones, speakers, sound card, etc.

 

 (b) Differentiate LCD and LED monitors. Explain with the help of suitable. examples.

 

LCD

LCD stands for ‘liquid crystal display’. It means that the active part of the monitor is a layer of liquid held between two pieces of polarized glass. A light from behind the liquid shines through the glass and illuminates the crystals.

LED

LED stands for ‘light-emitting diode’. LEDs are used as a light source in home light bulbs, traffic lights, smartphone and laptop screens and, of course, monitors. LEDs producing infrared light have been in your remote controls for decades. The time display on your clock radio? Yup, those are LEDs as well. In monitors, LEDs are the backlight used to illuminate the liquid crystal display. Did you notice that? LEDs can be used to light LCDs. I know, that’s only worsened your confusion. Let me clarify. This is a case of a marketing team taking creative license with a technical term. When talking about monitors, LCDs are usually the monitors that are backlit by fluorescent lamps, while LED monitors are backlit by LEDs. All LED monitors use liquid crystal displays, but not all liquid crystal displays are lit by LEDs. Are you still with me? Good. For the rest of this article, ‘LCD monitors’ will refer to a monitor with a fluorescent backlight.

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