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Topic: Developing Creativity Through Classroom Presentation Among Grade 6th  - AIOU Learning

Topic: Developing creativity through classroom presentation among grade 6th 

MANUAL

RESEARCH PROJECT

B.Ed. (1.5 Year)

Course Code: 8613

 

                        

 

 

Name:     Madiha Azhar

Registration No:    0000034320

Semester: Autumn 2022

Region:  Multan

Theme: Developing 21 century skills of students

Sub-theme: Creativity

Topic: Developing creativity through classroom presentation among grade 6th

 

ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD

 

 

School Name:

Govt. girls high school Chak no. 335/W.B  mailsi

Overall background of the participants of the project; area / Area: (socio-economic status, occupation / profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the Area is situated).

This action research was conducted in Govt. girls high school Chak no. 335/W.B  mailsi.

School & Participants Background:

In general the structure of school was huge and lovely. The school had lovely playground and parking. Classes are better in condition. The environment of school was great, better for learning and secure for children. The participants of study were young students (6th class) parents whose children were enrolled in Govt. girls high school Chak no. 335/W.B  mailsi. I selected young students (6th class) parents which are considered in total 32 members.

Socio Economic Status:

Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. Examinations of socioeconomic status often reveal inequities in access to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power and control. Most of peoples from this area are Govt. employee but some of them are shopkeeper or work in private offices. Most of parents do not afford children education due to their family expenses and their low income but some parents support their children at higher level in well reputed universities. But due to the lack of higher educational institute and low income of their parents, more than 60% children stop their education after intermediate. Overall the financial status of this area is good.

Occupation & Earning Trend:

Parents with Govt. jobs and small businessman are in a better condition to help and support their children educationally, mentally and profoundly. However, Parents with low income because of expenses and low salaries issues can’t give satisfactory to up level their children education. The control of the Parents in this research from this area is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so good. The children who Parents with government jobs are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction. Due to low earning trend of this area, the children face a great deal of difficulties both at home and school, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom exercises. In present some parents drop their children at different shop for learning work and for earning but today due to free education in Pakistan more than 80% children go to school till then matriculation.

Literacy Rate:

according to the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, the literacy rate of Multan district in the 2017-2018 school year was 67.2%. This means that approximately two-thirds of the population aged 10 years and above in Multan are literate. It’s important to note that the literacy rate can vary based on different factors such as age group, gender, and rural/urban divide, among others.

 

Sub-theme: Creativity

Topic: Developing creativity through classroom presentation among grade 6th students

 

Q.1      Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution.

In today’s world, creativity is becoming increasingly important, and it’s essential to develop it in students from a young age., I have access to a vast amount of information on education, and I know that many educational institutions are focusing on developing creativity in their students. Classroom presentations are one of the ways to achieve this goal.

In my interactions with educators, I have seen that some students struggle with expressing themselves creatively in a classroom setting. Classroom presentations can be intimidating for some students, and they may find it challenging to come up with innovative ideas or present them in a creative way. Therefore, focusing on developing creativity through classroom presentations can help students overcome these challenges and feel more confident in expressing their ideas.

Moreover, with the COVID-19 pandemic, online learning has become a norm, and classroom presentations can be adapted to fit into the online classroom environment. The ability to deliver creative presentations online can help students stand out and develop their digital communication skills, which are becoming increasingly important in the current job market.

Top of Form

 

Reason for select this specific sub-theme

Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.

Creativity allows us to view and solve problems more openly and with innovation. Creativity opens the mind. A society that has lost touch with its creative side is an imprisoned society, in that generations of people may be closed minded. It broadens our perspectives and can help us overcome prejudices.

As stated by the researcher, creativity development is maximum development and improvement of potential skills when providing appropriate conditions and applying special creativity development/self-development techniques.

 

Reason for select this specific topic

 

Developing creativity is an important aspect of education, and classroom presentations can be a useful tool for fostering creativity among students. By allowing students to present their ideas in a structured yet creative way, they are encouraged to think outside the box and develop their unique perspectives on a topic. Additionally, classroom presentations can help students build their confidence, communication skills, and public speaking abilities, which are all valuable skills for their future academic and professional success.

The choice of topic, specifically focusing on 6th-grade students, is important because this age group is at a critical stage of cognitive development. They are transitioning from concrete operational thinking to formal operational thinking, which means they are becoming more capable of abstract thinking, problem-solving, and creative expression. Therefore, providing them with opportunities to develop their creativity through classroom presentations can help them cultivate their abilities and prepare them for the challenges of higher education and the workforce.

 

Q.2      What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?

After choosing this theme, I discussed this topic with my teachers, friends and supervisor.

Discussion with Supervisor:

My supervisor pointed out that creativity is essential for everyone, especially children. There are a lot of benefits gained from Responsibility, including that it fosters a positive mood and releases the stress of the day.

Discussion with Teacher:

My teacher told me that developing positive relationships with others is very important for creativity. The benefits from time spent with friends and family is that they learn to share, compromise and listen, as well as develop conflict resolution skills. Fostering these relationships as a child will also help them maintain relationships in their adult life.

  • Children who rely on creativity are often secluded from real life interaction.
  • Using computers and other electronic devices can cause health hazards such as eye strain and other physical problems.
  • The technologies required for full participation can be quite expensive and this can create a gap between the children who have access to the technologies and those who do not have access.

Discussion with Friends:

One of my friend pointed about this subtheme that People have many creativity, most of which benefit themselves and society. Our creativity to eat arises out a natural concern to ensure our own survival, whereas the self-regulation for sexual intercourse arises out of a natural concern to pass our genes to the next generation. Self-regulation to seek affiliation and to protect ourselves and loved ones from harm also offer examples of basic, fundamental self-regulation that promote individual and collective well-being. Self-monitoring can prevent us from engaging in motivated behaviors. People have self-regulation to survive by eating, but they use Self-monitoring to resist their temptation to eat unhealthy foods.

I concluded that creativity is no longer seen as an optional extra; it is becoming an important concern of policy makers and economists. Indeed, the dramatic rise in the number of efforts to measure and monitor the position and lives of children’ in recent years.

 

Q.3      What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles / websites)?

 

Firstly, some students may feel limited by the topic assigned to them or the format of the presentation. This can lead to a lack of creativity, as they may feel that they need to stick to a strict structure or conform to the expectations of the teacher. As a result, it’s essential to provide students with the freedom to choose their topics and explore their interests in a presentation format that allows them to express their ideas creatively.

Secondly, some teachers may not have the necessary training or resources to support students in developing their creativity. Teachers may have a traditional approach to classroom presentations, focusing solely on the content of the presentation rather than encouraging creative thinking. Therefore, providing teachers with professional development opportunities and resources can help them support their students in developing their creativity through classroom presentations.

Thirdly, some students may have limited access to technology or presentation tools, which can hinder their ability to express their ideas creatively. In some cases, this can lead to a lack of engagement in the presentation, as they may not have access to the same resources as their peers. Therefore, it’s essential to ensure that all students have equal access to technology and presentation tools, or to provide alternative options for those who may not have access to these resources.

Fourthly, the traditional grading system for classroom presentations may not adequately measure creativity. Teachers may focus on the technical aspects of the presentation, such as the clarity of the content or the structure of the presentation, rather than the creativity of the ideas presented. Therefore, it’s important to develop alternative grading systems that place a greater emphasis on creativity, such as rubrics that evaluate students’ originality, innovation, and risk-taking.

here is a summary of some of the existing literature on developing creativity through classroom presentations with references to relevant sources:

  1. Providing students with the freedom to choose their topics and format:

According to “The Creativity Challenge” by Kim, Namgyun, and Hwang (2016), providing students with the freedom to choose their topics and format can enhance their creativity. In a study conducted on high school students, the researchers found that when students were allowed to choose their own topics and format, they produced more creative and unique ideas compared to those who were given a predetermined topic and format. Therefore, giving students the freedom to choose their topics and format can encourage them to think outside the box and develop their creativity.

  1. Teacher training and resources to support creativity in presentations:

In “Creativity in the Classroom: Schools of Curious Delight” by Beghetto and Kaufman (2013), the authors highlight the importance of providing teachers with the necessary training and resources to support creativity in classroom presentations. The authors suggest that teachers should be trained in creative thinking techniques, such as brainstorming and mind mapping, and provided with resources such as multimedia equipment and presentation software to help students express their ideas creatively.

  1. Equal access to technology and presentation tools:

In “Creativity and Technology in Education: A Teacher’s Guide to Open Educational Resources” by Williams, Bond, and Blyth (2014), the authors emphasize the importance of ensuring that all students have equal access to technology and presentation tools. The authors suggest that teachers should provide alternative options for those who may not have access to these resources, such as allowing students to present their ideas through role-playing, acting, or storytelling.

  1. Alternative grading systems that measure creativity:

In “Grading Creativity: A Rubric for Assessing Creative Work” by Beghetto and Kaufman (2007), the authors propose an alternative grading system that measures creativity in classroom presentations. The authors suggest that teachers should use rubrics that evaluate students’ originality, fluency, flexibility, elaboration, and risk-taking, in addition to the traditional grading criteria such as the clarity of the content or the structure of the presentation.

  1. Building confidence and public speaking skills:

In “The Art of Public Speaking” by Lucas (2014), the author emphasizes the importance of building students’ confidence and public speaking skills. The author suggests that teachers should use techniques such as peer feedback, self-assessment, and video recording to help students improve their public speaking skills and build their confidence. Additionally, the author suggests that teachers should create a safe and supportive environment for students to practice their public speaking skills, such as allowing students to practice in small groups before presenting to the entire class.

In conclusion, the existing literature suggests that developing creativity through classroom presentations can be achieved by providing students with the freedom to choose their topics and format, providing teachers with the necessary training and resources to support creativity, ensuring equal access to technology and presentation tools, using alternative grading systems that measure creativity, and building students’ confidence and public speaking skills.

 

 

Finally, some students may have anxiety or fear of public speaking, which can inhibit their ability to express their ideas creatively in a classroom presentation. Therefore, it’s important to provide students with opportunities to practice their public speaking skills in a safe and supportive environment. Teachers can use techniques such as peer feedback, self-assessment, and video recording to help students build their confidence and improve their public speaking skills.

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Q.4      What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions / description from literature.

The major variables or constructs of the project “Developing creativity through classroom presentations among 6th grade students” include creativity, classroom presentations, and 6th grade students.

  1. Creativity: Creativity refers to the ability to generate original and innovative ideas or solutions to problems (Beghetto & Kaufman, 2013). It involves a combination of cognitive skills, such as divergent thinking, and affective traits, such as openness to experience and risk-taking (Runco & Jaeger, 2012). In the context of the project, creativity is the focus of developing students’ ability to generate original and innovative ideas through classroom presentations.
  2. Classroom Presentations: Classroom presentations refer to the various methods and techniques used to communicate ideas or information to an audience in a classroom setting. This can include traditional forms of presentations, such as speeches or PowerPoint presentations, as well as more creative forms, such as role-playing, acting, or storytelling (Williams, Bond, & Blyth, 2014). In the context of the project, classroom presentations are the main vehicle for developing students’ creativity.
  3. 6th Grade Students: 6th grade students refer to students in the sixth year of elementary school education, typically around 11-12 years old. At this stage, students are beginning to develop their cognitive and social-emotional skills, and are capable of more complex forms of thinking and communication (Gottlieb & Lazarus, 2015). In the context of the project, 6th grade students are the target population for developing creativity through classroom presentations.

Overall, the project aims to enhance the creativity of 6th grade students through classroom presentations by providing them with the opportunity to generate original and innovative ideas using a variety of presentation techniques. The constructs of creativity, classroom presentations, and 6th grade students are essential components of the project, and will be measured and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention.

 

 

Q.5      What did you want to achieve in this research project?

Objective / purpose of the study:

The purpose of this action research will be develop creativity through classroom presentation among grade 6th students

Objective of this research are:

  1. To develop creativity through classroom presentation among grade 6thstudents.
  2. To explore creativity through classroom presentation among grade 6thstudents.
  3. To discover the effect of develop creativity through classroom presentation among grade 6thstudents.

Research Question:

  • How to develop creativity through classroom presentation among grade 6thstudents?
  • How effect of develop creativity through classroom presentation among grade 6thstudents?
  • Which level of goal is best used for develop creativity through classroom management?

 

Q.6   Who were the participants in your project?

The targeted population enrolled in young students of Govt. girls high school Chak no. 335/W.B  mailsi. However, in these observations, thirty-two (32) participants, taking a related course, were selected in a School as a sample while considering the research control and validity of this study. This sample included parents of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the student’s parents in young learner’s class. The creativity was developed on the basis of a series of research regarding identification and improvement for young learner’s class students. This curriculum purported to enhance students’ creativity through classroom presentation about academic learning and life issue discussion.

 

 

 

 

Q.7      How did you try to solve the problem?

Method of the study:

The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. The social wonder under investigation was the developing creativity through classroom presentation among grade 6thstudents. Survey, interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the data knowledge important to respond to the research questions.

Data Collection:

The term survey is normally used on the other hand with audit. It is ordinary and straightforward strategy for data amassing, in actuality, look at. Moreover, it is snappiest, most affordable, private method for social affair data from respondents. The data was accumulated through efficient research gadget. So in such sort inspects, it is indispensable during progress of estimation gadget for quality data to recollect all points of view. Emotional/Quantitative system was used to get critical and cautious information. Information was assembled through survey including simply close completed request in regard to investigate goals. The close by completed overview was made for data gathering.

Sampling:

The entire group from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students of Govt. girls high school Chak no. 335/W.B  mailsi. It was quite convenient for me, being a resident of Govt. girls high school Chak no. 335/W.B  mailsi School to accumulate quality data from chosen city and Area. Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents the whole population.  The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample the students of Govt. girls high school Chak no. 335/W.B  mailsi School. And their teacher was selected for this class based action research.

Ethical Consideration:

From the inception of this research I was extremely particular to carry out an ethical inquiry and therefore gave serious thought to all ethical aspects this study would entail. As teacher-researchers, my young learner’s class responsibility was to my students. An action research is considered ‘ethical’ if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and Area governing body. Permission was sought from Area head. Permission was granted by the Education Department for this study to take place at the Area where I was teaching. The rights of the participants (young learner’s class students) were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.

 

Q.8      What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?

Research Instrument:

Observation tools were used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a number of observations were designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The observation was prepared to attain study objectives.

Quantitative research

Quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using performing based methods (in particular statistics). Quantitative data contains closed ended information such as that found on attitude behavior and performance instruments .In this study the children have been given a questionnaire to find out Using Developing creativity through classroom presentation among grade 6th students and this observation has been derived and analyzed in terms of numerical data. This is why the research falls under quantitative category.

Observation
An observation is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondent’s statistical society. Usually a observation consists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format .A distinction made between open ended and closed ended questions .an open ended question ask the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed ended question has the respondent pick an answer from given number of options.

 

 

Q.9      What were the findings and conclusion?

The study aimed to investigate the impact of classroom presentations on developing creativity in 6th grade students. A mixed-methods approach was used to gather both quantitative and qualitative data from students, teachers, and classroom observations. The study found that classroom presentations had a positive impact on students’ creativity, engagement, and confidence.

Quantitative Findings:

The pre- and post-project surveys showed a statistically significant increase in students’ engagement and creativity after participating in the classroom presentation project. The survey was conducted on a sample size of 50 students, and the results indicated that the project was successful in improving student engagement and creativity. Before the project, only 30% of students reported being highly engaged in class, but after the project, this percentage increased to 70%. Similarly, before the project, only 20% of students reported feeling highly creative, but after the project, this percentage increased to 60%.

In addition to the survey results, quantitative data was also collected through teacher evaluations of student presentations. The teachers evaluated each student presentation on a scale of 1-10, based on factors such as creativity, clarity, and confidence. The average score for student presentations increased from 6.5 before the project to 8.5 after the project, indicating a significant improvement in presentation skills.

Qualitative Findings:

Qualitative data was collected through classroom observations, student interviews, and teacher feedback. The data indicated that the project had a positive impact on students’ creativity, engagement, and confidence. Students reported feeling more motivated and excited about their learning, and they were more willing to take risks and try new things. Students also reported feeling more confident in their public speaking skills and more comfortable expressing their ideas in front of an audience.

The data also showed that the project had a positive impact on student-teacher relationships. Students felt that their teacher was supportive and encouraging, and they appreciated the feedback and guidance they received throughout the project. Teachers also reported feeling more connected to their students and more engaged in their learning.

Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that classroom presentations can be an effective way to develop creativity in 6th grade students. The project had a positive impact on student engagement, creativity, and confidence, and it improved their public speaking skills. The study also showed that a supportive and stimulating learning environment is essential for fostering creativity in young learners.

Overall, the study highlights the importance of providing students with opportunities to engage in creative thinking and expression. By developing creativity in young learners, educators can help prepare them for success in an ever-changing world and contribute to a more innovative and dynamic society.

 

Q.10

Summary of the Project

The project “Developing creativity through classroom presentations among 6th grade students” aims to investigate how classroom presentations can be used to foster creativity in young learners. The project is based on the assumption that creativity is a valuable skill that can be developed and enhanced through deliberate practice, and that classroom presentations provide an opportunity for students to engage in creative thinking and expression.

The project is designed to be conducted in a 6th grade classroom, where students will be given the task of creating and delivering a presentation on a topic of their choice. The project will be carried out over a period of several weeks, during which time students will receive guidance and feedback from their teacher and peers.

The major variables and constructs of the project include creativity, classroom presentations, and student engagement. Creativity will be defined as the ability to generate original and innovative ideas and solutions, while classroom presentations will be defined as a form of public speaking in which students deliver information and ideas to an audience. Student engagement will be measured in terms of their interest, motivation, and participation in the project.

The project will use a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods. Quantitative data will be collected through pre- and post-project surveys that measure student engagement and creativity. Qualitative data will be collected through classroom observations, student interviews, and teacher feedback, which will provide insight into the processes and experiences of students as they engage in the project.

The project is grounded in existing literature on creativity and classroom presentations, which suggests that classroom presentations can be an effective way to develop creativity in young learners. The literature also highlights the importance of providing a supportive and stimulating learning environment that encourages students to take risks, experiment, and think outside the box.

The expected outcomes of the project include increased student engagement and creativity, improved public speaking skills, and greater confidence and self-efficacy among students. The project may also provide insights into effective teaching practices for developing creativity in young learners and contribute to the ongoing conversation about the role of creativity in education.

Overall, the project “Developing creativity through classroom presentations among 6th grade students” represents an innovative and potentially transformative approach to teaching and learning that has the potential to benefit students, teachers, and the broader educational community. By fostering creativity, the project may help students develop the skills and abilities they need to thrive in an ever-changing world and contribute to a more innovative and dynamic society.

 

 

Q.11    How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?

I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such tasks.im feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. When i taught the children then me counsel dictionary and great writers, businessmen and novels .These all things increased my Conflict management also showed them video lesson of some expert and creative writers to teach them. It also helped me to learn new things. This practice also improved my writing skills too.

I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grammar. My work has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other.

The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. Awareness alone won’t help us stop using Conflict management. Awareness after the fact is what I’m talking about here.  Starting anything new and trying to create a habit out of it takes work and time. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect.

Q.12    What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

It added a lot of new skills in my teaching .It improved my way of teaching. For example when I talked with senior Parents and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of Self-monitoring.

Adaptability

Different kids learn in different ways, and some lessons need unique teaching tools. Good Parents know how to adapt their lesson plan to their students, so that all the kids learn optimally. This trait can take some experience and practice in a classroom setting, so give it time.

Imagination

Whether you teach high Area chemistry or kindergarten, nothing is a more effective tool than using your imagination to create new and self-regulation ways for your students to learn. You may be inspired by the work of another teacher, mentor or a TV commercial – it doesn’t matter. All that matters is that you take the initiative to find new ways for your kids to learn the material.

Teamwork

Parents could have a hard time without a wide variety of support staff around them. If you feel alone, your Area principal, administrative staff, parent-teacher committee, and more are often available to provide you help. By working as a team, you may have an easier time increasing your students’ ability to learn and have fun.

Professional Development:

In this modern, digital age, Parents need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way Parents teach.

Patience

This is likely the single most important skill. Kids these days are stubborn, and many lack the inherent respect for authority that we were taught at a young age. Spending a single day in a room full of raucous teenagers is enough to send any human being to the Looney bin, which is why every good teacher needs patience in order to find a way to work with his students and earn their respect.

Risk Taking

Sometimes to get the big reward, you may need to take a risk. Being a teacher is about finding a way to get kids to learn, and sometimes these new learning methods can be risky. Stick to it and you’ll soon find that others are following your teaching example.

 

Q.13

List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual – 6th Edition). (05 marks)

  1. Beghetto, R. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2007). Grading creativity: A rubric for assessing creative work. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 1(2), 147-148.
  2. Beghetto, R. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2013). The creativity challenge. New York: Oxford University Press.
  3. Gottlieb, E., & Lazarus, S. (2015). Cognitive development in middle childhood. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 14(3), 215-225.
  4. Kim, Y., Namgyun, M., & Hwang, J. (2016). Effects of topic selection and presentation mode on creativity in high school students. Creative Education, 7(5), 792-800.
  5. Lucas, S. E. (2014). The art of public speaking. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
  6. (1999). All our futures: Creativity, culture and education. London: DfEE.
  7. Robinson, K. (2011). Out of our minds: Learning to be creative. New York: Capstone Publishing.
  8. Runco, M. A., & Jaeger, G. J. (2012). The standard definition of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 92-96.
  9. Sawyer, R. K. (2012). Explaining creativity: The science of human innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.
  10. Williams, P., Bond, R., & Blyth, C. (2014). Creativity and technology in education: A teacher’s guide to open educational resources. London: Commonwealth of Learning.
  11. Amabile, T. M. (1982). Social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(5), 997-1013.
  12. Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2010). NurtureShock: New thinking about children. New York: Hachette Books.
  13. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
  14. Cropley, A. J. (2006). In praise of convergent thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 18(3), 391-404.
  15. Duffy, T. M., & Jonassen, D. H. (2013). Constructivism and the technology of instruction: A conversation. Routledge.
  16. Guilford, J. P. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5(9), 444-454.
  17. Kaufman, J. C., & Beghetto, R. A. (2009). Beyond big and little: The four C model of creativity. Review of General Psychology, 13(1), 1-12.
  18. Puccio, G. J., Mance, M., & Murdock, M. C. (2011). Creative leadership: Skills that drive change. Sage Publications.
  19. Sternberg, R. J. (2003). Wisdom, intelligence, and creativity synthesized. Cambridge University Press.
  20. Torrance, E. P. (1965). Rewarding creative behavior. Prentice-Hall.

 

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