Q.1 Discuss the concept of simulated teaching and also examine the characteristics of simulated teaching.
Simulation is a controlled representation of reality. Simulation means role- playing or rehearsal in which the process of teaching is carried out artificially. Simulated teaching is a teacher training technique. It is used to bring about modification in the behavior of the teacher. It introduces pupil teacher to teach in non-stressful conditions.
Simulated teaching is used prior to the classroom teaching practice with the objective of developing a specific skill of communication. It can be used for pre-service teachers to make them effective.
In simulated teaching, one pupil-teacher acts as a teacher and other teacher trainers act as students. The teacher in this situation teaches considering the student as school students.
(1) Teacher behavior is modifiable by the use of feedback device.
(2) The underlying skill of teaching can be modified and practiced.
(3) Teacher behavior can be identified.
(1) This technique requires very systematic planning in advance that ensures attainment of desired goals.
(2) This method is effective for the practice of teaching skills by pupil teacher.
(3) The training is provided in artificial situations. Through mock trails learns are fully trained to face real situations.
(4) Through feedback drawbacks are noted in teaching, they are pointed out along with appropriate suggestions to rectify them.
Procedure of simulated training
Following are the six steps that are usually followed in simulated teaching.
(1) Assignment of role:-
The student teachers are assigned the roles of teachers and observe resp. It is done rotation basis.
(2) Deciding skill to be practiced
At this stage, the skill to be practiced is decided and planning and preparation for it are done. Each trainee selects the topic according to his interest and intelligence.
(3) Preparation of work schedule
At this stage, it is decided who will teach first and who will observe and how everyone would be teaching /observing one by one.
(4) Determining technique of observation
In this stage, the decision is taken about the type of observation technique to be adopted. It also includes which type of data is to be collected and how these data are to be intercepted.
(5) Organization of first practice session
The first practice session is started and its observations are recorded for judging the teaching behavior.
This followed by feedback and suggestions for further improvement.
(6) Alteration of procedure
The whole procedure is changed at this stage. There is a change of teacher, change of observers, change of teaching skill and change in topic to be taught. Every student is given the opportunity to play the role of teacher, a student, and a teacher.
Precaution for simulated teaching
(1) Pupils for the same subject should go for practice.
(2) Each pupil-teacher should be provided with the opportunity to play the role of teacher, student, and an observer.
(3) For practice pupil- the teacher should prepare micro- lesson plan.
(4) At the end of the session there should be a decision for diagnostic processes.
Advantage of simulated teaching
(1) It is for experiencing problem situation.
(2) This technique helps us in acquiring some classroom manners.
(3) The use of this technique enables us to study and analyze the teaching problems.
(4) Self-confidence in teaching developers through simulated teaching.
(5) This technique helps in explaining the behavior problems in the classroom and contributes to its solutions.
(6) This technique makes a person more aware of the role.
(7) It bridges the gap between theory and practice of teaching.
(8) It provides them with the reinforcement to develop various teaching skills.
Limitation of simulated teaching
(1) its use can not be made in all subjects of the curriculum.
(2) This method requires a lot of preparation on the part of the teachers which they might not be ready to take.
(3) The observer who is doing the role, may incorrect reading.
(4) For beginners, it may be difficult to practice a few teaching skills such as questioning,
(5) No emphasis is given to teaching the content.
Q.2 Discuss the uses of multi-media in Pakistan especially in distance education.
Television and computers are tools used by educators to disseminate and manage instruction. It is important for educators to know the values and limitations of different communication media and techniques.
The coordinator of distance education should establish competence, continuity, control and confidence. Large group one-way communications should be supported by small group activities and interactive computer experiences. Even in distance learning, there may be a need for individual tutoring with real time interaction between students and teachers, or peer learning where students work together and support each other. Students need guidance, encouragement and reassurance; constructive criticism and advice, fair and objective grading, and timely response from the instructor.
For the most part, distance education students are adult learners. Compared to school-age students, they are self-reliant and responsible for their own learning. They should be encouraged to assume responsibility for setting objectives, self-direction, personal responsibility, personal experiences, making decisions, learning to solve problems, and maintaining intrinsic motivation (Moore, Kearsley, 1996).
Research in distance education encompasses the changing roles of teachers and students, the role of interactive technologies, and its global impact on traditional and underserved populations of learners. It describes distance education as synchronous and non-synchronous, anywhere and anytime, and learner focused. It adds a vocabulary of technical terms related to computers, television, and interactive multimedia.
Some studies compare the quality of learning; others examine the quality of the learning experience. For example, a study of Ohio’s distance education courses via microwave television compared student perceptions based demographic variables (İşman). “The level of student satisfaction in the class was not high. More than 50% of the observational data indicated that students did not agree that they learned as much in the interactive television class.” Test results revealed no relationship between gender and students’ perceptions. Age and college classification were strongly related to perceptions of interactive television courses. Less significant relationships were found between academic major and graduate/undergraduate status (İşman).
Teachers should share their knowledge and experience with students by providing consulting, helping, directing, and advising. Distance Education embraces whole of the student activity, responsibility and willingness for formulating and asking relevant questions and seeking answers. Many Distance Education programmes use discussion and question-answer type media, or decisions based on short scenarios or simulations. The main consideration is here to define and measure role effectiveness of teacher-student communication on learning at a distance (Willis, 2002). Distance education is new technological power for developing a dynamic self-concept for students. The constructivist approach changes the role of educators. Distance Education emulates this approach by leading the students (learner) to develop his or her own strategies, objectives, evaluation, implementation under guidance of a teachers (Gibson, 1997).
Distance Education requires an individualized learning process where the learner can access knowledge from computer-assisted programs and/or other technologies such as television. With development of high multi-media, learners look for fast, easy, any-time, anywhere education opportunities. They expect high educational standards based on global competition. Distance Education may serve as an alternative to traditional on-campus instruction or “blended” to combine distance with on-campus courses.
The changing roles of students and teachers in distance education are influencing classical education standards and pedagogy. According to research findings on the roles of the students’ in distance education are:
- Be disciplined and on task
- Consult with and seek guidance from advisors through required access methods
- Assume responsibility for your own learning
- Develop effective interaction with teachers and counselors (like classical learning)
- Evaluate and judge your own performance
- Combat prejudice and communication barriers
According to research findings on the roles of the teachers in distance education are:
- Assume responsibility for preparation and presentation of learning tasks
- Immediately consult with students to correct problems and keep them on task
- Be aware of student needs and wishes; respond promptly to communications and tests
- Build student motivation
- Combat prejudice of communicational barriers
- Establish an effective environment for student-teacher and student-student interaction
Research provides data to compare effectiveness of the teaching and learning in a great variety of situations. Learning in a high-tech, global environment presents new roles and responsibilities for both teacher and learner. In addition; there is a radical change in construction and delivery of course content. Media to facilitate interaction between and among learners, teachers, and content increases the opportunity for in-depth and meaningful learning (Gibson, 1997). Constructivist techniques support learning and teaching, self-development and self evaluation (İşman, 1999). Constructivism is an integral part of distance education. The focus is on the student and his active role in learning supported by multi-media.
Q.3 Discuss the theories of organization and also write ten characteristics of the role of teacher as a manager in distance education.
Everything you need to know about the organizational theories. Organizational theory is the sociological study of formal social organizations, such as businesses and bureaucracies, and their interrelationship with the environment in which they operate.
It complements the studies of organizational behavior and human resource studies.
Organisational theory means the study of the structure, functioning and performance of organisation and the behaviour of individual and groups within it.
The Organizational Theory refers to the set of interrelated concepts, definitions that explain the behavior of individuals or groups or subgroups, who interacts with each other to perform the activities intended towards the accomplishment of a common goal.
In other words, the organizational theory studies the effect of social relationships between the individuals within the organization along with their actions on the organization as a whole. Also, it studies the effects of internal and external business environment such as political, legal, cultural, etc. on the organization.
The term organization refers to the group of individuals who come together to perform a set of tasks with the intent to accomplish the common objectives. The organization is based on the concept of synergy, which means, a group can do more work than an individual working alone.
Thus, in order to study the relationships between the individuals working together and their overall effect on the performance of the organization is well explained through the organizational theories. Some important organizational theories are:
- Classical Theory
- Scientific Management Theory
- Administrative Theory
- Bureaucratic Theory
- Neo-Classical Theory
- Modern Theory
An organizational structure plays a vital role in the success of any enterprise. Thus, the organizational theories help in identifying the suitable structure for an organization, efficient enough to deal with the specific problems. The classical perspective of management originated during the Industrial Revolution. It focuses primarily on efficiency and productivity and does not take into account behavioral attributes of employees. Classical organizational theory combines aspects of scientific management, bureaucratic theory and administrative theory. Scientific management involves obtaining optimal equipment and personnel and then carefully scrutinizing each component of the production process, states StatPac Inc, an international software development and research company. Bureaucratic theory places importance on establishing a hierarchical structure of power. Administrative theory strives to establish universal management principles relevant to all organizations. Neoclassical organizational theory is a reaction to the authoritarian structure of classical theory. The neoclassical approach emphasizes the human needs of employees to be happy in the workplace, cited StatPac Inc. This allows creativity, individual growth and motivation, which increases productivity and profits. Managers utilizing the neoclassical approach manipulate the work environment to produce positive results. Contingency theory accepts that there is no universally ideal leadership style because each organization faces unique circumstances internally and externally. In contingency theory, productivity is a function of a manager’s ability to adapt to environmental changes. Managerial authority is especially important for highly volatile industries. This allows managers the freedom to make decisions based on current situations. The contingency theory reveals situations that require more intense focus and takes account of unique circumstances. Systems theorists believe all organizational components are interrelated. Changes in one component may affect all other components, according to StatPac. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in a state of dynamic equilibrium, which are continually changing and adapting to environment and circumstance. Nonlinear relationships between organizational components create a complex understanding of organizations in systems theory. Organizational structure became an important aspect of organizational theory due to the increasing complexities of multinational organizations and the need to more quickly and efficiently reach the market. Project-focused structures enable a greater responsiveness to market demands than purely functional or bureaucratic structures. Projectized organizational structures focus on the project manager or project management office for information and activities related to business projects. The matrix organizational structure features vertical hierarchies of functional departments that facilitate projects along a horizontal axis. The continual exchange of information and energy characterizes the relationship between organizational structure and environment.
- Teacher promotes learner autonomy and is aware of individual differences.
- Teacher uses relevant and current information to transmit knowledge. Teacher constantly researches the curriculum and provides concrete up-to-date examples.
- Teacher gives importance to the thoughts of students and promotes student research, evaluation, discussion, and reporting.
- Teacher is aware of individual student differences when designing course materials
- Teacher knows student prerequisite skills and knowledge and uses this foundation to build new knowledge. In addition, the teacher knows how learner can learn.
- Teacher initiates student-teacher interaction, and has communication and technological skills to effectively implement distance education.
- Teacher constructs student-centered learning with opportunities for interaction. Students are responsible for learning and responsible for contacting teacher when needed.
- Teacher collaborates with student in self-development and responsibility.
- Teacher provides environment, materials, and guidance for collaborative learning, interactive discussion groups, individual learning, and research.
- Teacher provides prompt and accurate feedback to students to facilitate learning.
Q.4 Explain the components of system approach and also discuss the usefulness of system approach for solving an instructional problem.
The term “systems” is derived from the Greek word “synistanai,” which means “to bring together or combine.” The term has been used for centuries. Components of the organizational concepts referred to as the “systems approach” have been used to manage armies and governments for millennia. However, it was not until the Industrial Revolution of the 19th and 20th centuries that formal recognition of the “systems” approach to management, philosophy, and science emerged (Whitehead 1925, von Bertalanffy 1968). As the level of precision and efficiency demanded of technology, science, and management increased the complexity of industrial processes, it became increasingly necessary to develop a conceptual basis to avoid being overwhelmed by complexity. The systems approach emerged as scientists and philosophers identified common themes in the approach to managing and organizing complex systems. Four major concepts underlie the systems approach:
- Specialization: A system is divided into smaller components allowing more specialized concentration on each component.
- Grouping: To avoid generating greater complexity with increasing specialization, it becomes necessary to group related disciplines or sub-disciplines.
- Coordination: As the components and subcomponents of a system are grouped, it is necessary to coordinate the interactions among groups.
- Emergent properties: Dividing a system into subsystems (groups of component parts within the system), requires recognizing and understanding the “emergent properties” of a system; that is, recognizing why the system as a whole is greater than the sum of its parts. For example, two forest stands may contain the same tree species, but the spatial arrangement and size structure of the individual trees will create different habitats for wildlife species. In this case, an emergent property of each stand is the wildlife habitat.
The systems approach considers two basic components: elements and processes. ELEMENTS are measurable things that can be linked together. They are also called objects, events, patterns, or structures. PROCESSES change elements from one form to another. They may also be called activities, relations, or functions. In a system the elements or processes are grouped in order to reduce the complexity of the system for conceptual or applied purposes. Depending on the system’s design, groups and the interfaces between groups can be either elements or processes. Because elements or processes are grouped, there is variation within each group. Understanding the nature of this variation is central to the application of systems theory to problem-solving.
Ecosystems are composed of elements and processes. (These are usually referred to as ecosystem structures and functions or the patterns and processes of an ecosystem.) As an example, the elements of a forest ecosystem might include trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, and insects, while the processes might include growth, mortality, decomposition, and disturbances.
Q.5 Discuss the types of lesson plan and also specify the different approaches to lesson planning
1. Identify the learning objectives
Before you plan your lesson, you will first need to identify the learning objectives for the lesson. A learning objective describes what the learner will know or be able to do after the learning experience rather than what the learner will be exposed to during the instruction (i.e. topics). Typically, it is written in a language that is easily understood by students and clearly related to the program learning outcomes. The table below contains the characteristics of clear learning objectives:
|Clearly stated tasks||Free from jargon and complex vocabulary; describe specific and achievable tasks (such as ‘describe’, ‘analyse’ or ‘evaluate’) NOT vague tasks (like ‘appreciate’, ‘understand’ or ‘explore’).|
|Important learning goals||Describe the essential (rather than trivial) learning in the course which a student must achieve.|
|Achievable||Can be achieved within the given period and sufficient resources are available.|
|Demonstrable and measurable||Can be demonstrated in a tangible way; are assessable; achievement and quality of achievement can be observed.|
|Fair and equitable||All students, including those with disabilities or constraints, have a fair chance of achieving them.|
|Linked to course and program objectives||Consider the broader goals – i.e. course, program and institutional goals.|
The Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (link) is a useful resource for crafting learning objectives that are demonstrable and measurable.
- Plan the specific learning activities
When planning learning activities you should consider the types of activities students will need to engage in, in order to develop the skills and knowledge required to demonstrate effective learning in the course. Learning activities should be directly related to the learning objectives of the course, and provide experiences that will enable students to engage in, practice, and gain feedback on specific progress towards those objectives.
As you plan your learning activities, estimate how much time you will spend on each. Build in time for extended explanation or discussion, but also be prepared to move on quickly to different applications or problems, and to identify strategies that check for understanding. Some questions to think about as you design the learning activities you will use are:
- What will I do to explain the topic?
- What will I do to illustrate the topic in a different way?
- How can I engage students in the topic?
- What are some relevant real-life examples, analogies, or situations that can help students understand the topic?
- What will students need to do to help them understand the topic better?
Many activities can be used to engage learners. The activity types (i.e. what the student is doing) and their examples provided below are by no means an exhaustive list, but will help you in thinking through how best to design and deliver high impact learning experiences for your students in a typical lesson.
|Activity Type||Learning Activity||Description|
|Interaction with content
Students are more likely to retain information presented in these ways if they are asked to interact with the material in some way.
|Drill and practice||Problem/task is presented to students where they are asked to provide the answer; may be timed or untimed|
|Lecture||Convey concepts verbally, often with visual aids (e.g. presentation slides)|
|Quiz||Exercise to assess the level of student understanding and questions can take many forms, e.g. multiple-choice, short-structured, essay etc.|
|Student presentation||Oral report where students share their research on a topic and take on a position and/or role|
|Interaction with digital content
Students experiment with decision making, and visualise the effects and/or consequences in virtual environments
|Game||Goal-oriented exercise that encourages collaboration and/or competition within a controlled virtual environment|
|Simulation||Replica or representation of a real-world phenomenon that enables relationships, contexts, and concepts to be studied|
|Interaction with others
Peer relationships, informal support structures, and teacher-student interactions/relationships
|Debate||Verbal activity in which two or more differing viewpoints on a subject are presented and argued|
|Discussion||Formal/informal conversation on a given topic/question where the instructor facilitates student sharing of responses to the questions, and building upon those responses|
|Feedback||Information provided by the instructor and/or peer(s) regarding aspects of one’s performance or understanding|
|Guest Speaker||Feelings, thoughts, ideas and experiences specific to a given topic are shared by an invited presenter|
|Problem solving and Critical thinking
Presenting students with a problem, scenario, case, challenge or design issue, which they are then asked to address or deal with provides students with opportunities to think about or use knowledge and information in new and different ways
|Case Study||Detailed story (true or fictional) that students analyse in detail to identify the underlying principles, practices, or lessons it contains|
|Concept Mapping||Graphical representation of related information in which common or shared concepts are linked together|
|Real-world projects||Planned set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within certain cost and other limitations, either individually or collaboratively|
The process of reflection starts with the student thinking about what they already know and have experienced in relation to the topic being explored/learnt. This is followed by analysis of why the student thinks about the topic in the way they do, and what assumptions, attitudes and beliefs they have about, and bring to learning about the topic.
|Reflection journal||Written records of students’ intellectual and emotional reactions to a given topic on a regular basis (e.g. weekly after each lesson)|
It is important that each learning activity in the lesson must be (1) aligned to the lesson’s learning objectives, (2) meaningfully engage students in active, constructive, authentic, and collaborative ways, and (3) useful where the student is able to take what they have learnt from engaging with the activity and use it in another context, or for another purpose.
- Plan to assess student understanding
Assessments (e.g., tests, papers, problem sets, performances) provide opportunities for students to demonstrate and practice the knowledge and skills articulated in the learning objectives, and for instructors to offer targeted feedback that can guide further learning.
Planning for assessment allows you to find out whether your students are learning. It involves making decisions about:
- the number and type of assessment tasks that will best enable students to demonstrate learning objectives for the lesson
- Examples of different assessments
- Formative and/or summative
- the criteria and standards that will be used to make assessment judgements
- student roles in the assessment process
- Peer assessment
- the weighting of individual assessment tasks and the method by which individual task judgements will be combined into a final grade for the course
- information about how various tasks are to be weighted and combined into an overall grade must be provided to students
- the provision of feedback
- giving feedback to students on how to improve their learning, as well as giving feedback to instructors how to refine their teaching
- Plan to sequence the lesson in an engaging and meaningful manner
Robert Gagne proposed a nine-step process called the events of instruction, which is useful for planning the sequence of your lesson. Using Gagne’s 9 events in conjunction with Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (link) aids in designing engaging and meaningful instruction.
- Gain attention: Obtain students’ attention so that they will watch and listen while the instructor presents the learning content.
- Present a story or a problem to be solved
- Utilize ice breaker activities, current news and events, case studies, YouTube videos, and so on. The objective is to quickly grab student attention and interest in the topic
- Utilize technologies such as clickers, and surveys to ask leading questions prior to lecture, survey opinion, or gain a response to a controversial question
- Inform learner of objectives: Allow students to organize their thoughts regarding what they are about to see, hear, and/or do.
- Include learning objectives in lecture slides, the syllabus, and in instructions for activities, projects and papers
- Describe required performance
- Describe criteria for standard performance
- Stimulate recall of prior knowledge:
- Help students make sense of new information by relating it to something they already know or something they have already experienced.
- Recall events from previous lecture, integrate results of activities into the current topic, and/or relate previous information to the current topic
- Ask students about their understanding of previous concepts
- Present new content: Utilise a variety of methods including lecture, readings, activities, projects, multimedia, and others.
- Sequence and chunk the information to avoid cognitive overload
- Blend the information to aid in information recall
- Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy can be used to help sequence the lesson by helping you chunk them into levels of difficulty.
- Provide guidance: Advise students of strategies to aid them in learning content and of resources available. With learning guidance, the rate of learning increases because students are less likely to lose time or become frustrated by basing performance on incorrect facts or poorly understood concepts.
- Provide instructional support as needed – as scaffolds (cues, hints, prompts) which can be removed after the student learns the task or content
- Model varied learning strategies – mnemonics, concept mapping, role playing, visualizing
- Use examples and non-examples
To find out more about scaffolding student learning, click here
- Practice: Allow students to apply knowledge and skills learned.
- Allow students to apply knowledge in group or individual activities
- Ask deep-learning questions, make reference to what students already know or have students collaborate with their peers
- Ask students to recite, revisit, or reiterate information they have learned
- Facilitate student elaborations – ask students to elaborate or explain details and provide more complexity to their responses
- Provide feedback: Provide immediate feedback of students’ performance to assess and facilitate learning.
- Consider using group / class level feedback (highlighting common errors, give examples or models of target performance, show students what you do not want)
- Consider implementing peer feedback
- Require students to specify how they used feedback in subsequent works
- Assess performance: To evaluate the effectiveness of the instructional events, test to see if the expected learning outcomes have been achieved. Performance should be based on previously stated objectives.
- Utilise a variety of assessment methods including exams/quizzes, written assignments, projects, and so on.
- Enhance retention and transfer: Allow students to apply information to personal contexts. This increases retention by personalising information.
- Provide opportunities for students to relate course work to their personal experiences
- Provide additional practice
- Create a realistic timeline
A list of ten learning objectives is not realistic, so narrow down your list to the two or three key concepts, ideas, or skills you want students to learn in the lesson. Your list of prioritized learning objectives will help you make decisions on the spot and adjust your lesson plan as needed. Here are some strategies for creating a realistic timeline:
- Estimate how much time each of the activities will take, then plan some extra time for each
- When you prepare your lesson plan, next to each activity indicate how much time you expect it will take
- Plan a few minutes at the end of class to answer any remaining questions and to sum up key points
- Plan an extra activity or discussion question in case you have time left
- Be flexible – be ready to adjust your lesson plan to students’ needs and focus on what seems to be more productive rather than sticking to your original plan
- Plan for a lesson closure
Lesson closure provides an opportunity to solidify student learning. Lesson closure is useful for both instructors and students.
You can use closure to:
- Check for student understanding and inform subsequent instruction (adjust your teaching accordingly)
- Emphasise key information
- Tie up loose ends
- Correct students’ misunderstandings
- Preview upcoming topics
Your students will find your closure helpful for:
- Summarizing, reviewing, and demonstrating their understanding of major points
- Consolidating and internalising key information
- Linking lesson ideas to a conceptual framework and/or previously-learned knowledge
- Transferring ideas to new situations
There are several ways in which you can put a closure to the lesson:
- state the main points yourself (“Today we talked about…”)
- ask a student to help you summarize them
- ask all students to write down on a piece of paper what they think were the main points of the lesson