Course: FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION (6500) Semester: Autumn, 2022
Level: MA/ M. ED
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Explain the importance of “Education”. Differentiate between the aims of education in Muslim society and in the global perspective?
Do you think attending school and doing projects for your college is a waste of time? If you do, you might want to reconsider that claim as education is a key part of a society’s growth and progress. When people are educated, they can significantly contribute to their families and society in various aspects and fields, thus creating a stable and stimulating community. Why is education important to society? Let’s take into account some reasons.
1. Creating More Employment Opportunities
Finding a job is not easy, especially in times of economic turmoil. You often need to compete with hundreds of other candidates for a vacant position. In addition, the lower the education level, the greater the number of people applying for the same low-paying entry-level post. However, with the right qualifications and educational background, you will increase your chances of landing a fulfilling job. Would you like to find a way to stand out from a pool of applicants? Learn, educate yourself, graduate and get as many qualifications, skills, knowledge, and experience as possible.
2. Securing a Higher Income
People with higher education and varied experience are more likely to get high-paying, expert jobs. Study hard, dedicate your time and effort to acquire knowledge and reach a high level of competence if you would like to lead a comfortable lifestyle. Your credentials are what will motivate a potential employer to choose you instead of another candidate. Studying hard throughout your school and studies shows you are not afraid of hard work and are able to fulfill your goals. Employers see this as a huge advantage as they all prefer a responsible and knowledgeable workforce. Once you graduate, you can start searching for jobs that will give you the opportunity to practice what you have learned and, at the same time, secure sufficient pay for your needs.
Q.2 Compare the basic philosophies e.g., Ontology, Epistemology and Axiology. Apply these philosophies to the field of education.
Epistemology, Ontology and Axiology are often unspoken assumptions about knowledge. People in society, and our values that rest beneath our favorite research. Each of them corresponds to a branch of philosophy, which can be very abstract. Let’s not let that confuse us, because most people, doing research don’t spend a vast amount of time writing directly about Epistemology, Ontology or Axiology. The way it normally plays out is that researchers are just going about their research and these areas or assumptions remain implied beneath the surface. The research will leave clues, and so if they’re so assumed, or beneath the surface, then why do we even talk about them? Well, understanding these three areas will help us gather a better appreciation, and be able to compare and contrast different areas of research at a much more sophisticated level. So there is some payoff here. So let’s start with epistemology. We’ll go from general to specific.
When solving some Attitude problem or reading something then there we require knowledge to understand the world, which is known as Epistemology.
Also Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that studies knowledge or knowing.
They ask questions like: How do we know what we claim to know? That’s the classic epistemological question. That we can see in a lot of theory and research textbooks. A researcher might assume for example, that knowledge is already out there, just waiting to be discovered. And so, it’s our job as researchers to uncover this universal, unchanging and absolute truth.
Q.3 Discuss the Islamic philosophy of education and highlight its implications in the present teaching process.
Islam is a religion for all mankind and is relevant for both spiritual and mundane life. Islam does not recognize the differences on the basis of caste, creed, wealth, language , race, region etc. Islam contains just economic system, a well-balanced social system, codes of civil, criminal, international law and a philosophical outlook on the mission of life. Islam essentially stands for deep religious life and at the same time defines a good living for the mankind.
BASIC TENETS OF ISLAMIC WORLD VIEW
• Man is the creation of God who can choose to conform to his ordinates
• Man has intelligence, will and speech. But man is also weak and forgetful. Through revelation‘s guidance he can seek to overcome his imperfections.
• Conformity with God‘s will determines a man‘s destiny in this life and the next.
• The right way to live is according to God‘s will, which he has revealed through the prophets.
• Islam is a restatement of what god has to say to man as a set of beliefs
• Law is prescribed in Islam for every sphere of life
Islam has provided the social framework for a great culture for more than a thousand years.
• The Muslim world is one unit.
• Islam is not only to be apprised of, even carefully acquainted with, its pattern, institutions and history but also to apprehend what these mean to those who have the faith.
Q.4 Elaborate the philosophy of idealism in the context of Metaphysics. Determine the relationship of idealism with aims and processes of education.
The terms “idealism” and “idealist” are by no means used only within philosophy; they are used in many everyday contexts as well. Optimists who believe that, in the long run, good will prevail are often called “idealists”. This is not because such people are thought to be devoted to a philosophical doctrine but because of their outlook on life generally; indeed, they may even be pitied, or perhaps envied, for displaying a naïve worldview and not being philosophically critical at all. Even within philosophy, the terms “idealism” and “idealist” are used in different ways, which often makes their meaning dependent on the context. However, independently of context one can distinguish between a descriptive (or classificatory) use of these terms and a polemical one, although sometimes these different uses occur together. Their descriptive use is best documented by paying attention to the large number of different “idealisms” that appear in philosophical textbooks and encyclopedias, ranging from metaphysical idealism through epistemological and aesthetic to moral or ethical idealism. Within these idealisms one can find further distinctions, such as those between subjective, objective and absolute idealism, and even more obscure characterizations such as speculative idealism and transcendental idealism. It is also remarkable that the term “idealism”, at least within philosophy, is often used in such a way that it gets its meaning through what is taken to be its opposite: as the meaningful use of the term “outside” depends on a contrast with something considered to be inside, so the meaning of the term “idealism” is often fixed by what is taken to be its opposite. Thus, an idealist is someone who is not a realist, not a materialist, not a dogmatist, not an empiricist, and so on. Given the fact that many also want to distinguish between realism, materialism, dogmatism, and empiricism, it is obvious that thinking of the meaning of “idealism” as determined by what it is meant to be opposed to leads to further complexity and gives rise to the impression that underlying such characterizations lies some polemical intent.
Within modern philosophy there are sometimes taken to be two fundamental conceptions of idealism:
Q.5 Critically analyze the role of a teacher in the four traditional philosophies of education, while focusing on the aims of education of each philosophy.
Teachers that want to excel in their approach to education need to understand the core philosophy of education behind the system. By fully gauging the role of learning in society and the various philosophical schools of thought, you can expand your horizon beyond the classroom.
You can also inspire students to learn holistically and improve their performance with the right teaching philosophy and approach. With the word philosophy meaning “love of wisdom” from its Greek roots, teachers can focus on the role of wisdom regarding what they are teaching.
Whether it be math or science, imparting knowledge from a place of wisdom is essential to teaching effectiveness across grades. That’s why educators are trying to understand the different teaching philosophies and extract insights on what can be helpful in the long term.
Types of Educational Philosophies for Teachers
When we say that different teachers have different styles, it is an informal way of understanding the differences between teaching philosophies. We can have a unique teaching style based on our core beliefs about education and the role we play as teachers in the lives of our students. We can gauge more about what techniques we can incorporate by understanding the different philosophies of education.
The philosophy of education, known as realism, focuses on the role of scientific observation, experimentation, and hands-on learning. It emphasizes the benefits of students grasping an intuitive sense of any subject or topic.
It also understands the limitations of bias and asks teachers to inculcate a desire for learning and to expand the mind. Realism encourages practical knowledge and building upon that knowledge base for a more complex understanding of different subjects.