AIOU Educational Psychology and Guidance 6501-2 Solved Assignment Autumn 2022

Course: Educational Psychology and Guidance (6501) Semester: Autumn, 2022

Level: MA/M.Ed                                                                             


Q.1 Explain types and functions of motivation; what ways, you as a teacher will use to increase students motivation level?                                          


The word Motivation derives from the   Latin word “Movere”. The Latin word “Movere” means “To move”, “To drive” or “To drive forward” etc.  Motivation can be defined as stimulating, inspiring and inducing the employees to perform to their best capacity. Motivation is a psychological term which means it cannot be forced on employees. It comes automatically from inside the employees as it is the willingness to do the work.

Joe Kelly  defined Motivation as “Motivation is a process where by needs instigate behavior directed towards the goals that can satisfy those needs.”

According to W. G. Scot, “Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish the desired goals.”

According to Michael J. Jucius, “Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action, to push the right button to get a desired results.”


Q.2      Write a brief, but comprehensive note on the following:

·  Interest inventories


An interest inventory is a testing instrument designed for the purpose of measuring and evaluating the level of an individual’s interest in, or preference for, a variety of activities; also known as interest test. Testing methods include direct observation of behavior, ability tests, and self-reporting inventories of interest in educational, social, recreational, and vocational activities. The activities usually represented in interest inventories are variously related to occupational areas, and these instruments and their results are often used in vocational guidance.

The first widely used interest inventory was the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, developed in 1927 by E.K. Strong. The original test was designed for men only; a version for women was developed in 1933. In 1974 the Strong test was merged into the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, which was further revised in 1981. The test contains 325 activities, subjects, etc. Takers of this test are asked whether they like, dislike, or are indifferent to 325 items representing a wide variety of school subjects, occupations, activities, and types of people. They are also asked to choose their favorite among pairs of activities and indicate which of 14 selected characteristics apply to them. The Strong-Campbell test is scored according to 162 separate occupational scales as well as 23 scales that group together various types of occupations (“basic interest scales”). Examinees are also scored on six “general occupational themes” derived from J.L. Holland’s interest classification scheme (realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional).

Q.3 Why is mental health of teachers and students important? How a teacher can identify learners with maladjustment issues?


As teachers, we give so much thought to other people–the students, the school management, the parents, fellow teachers, throughout the day.  However, we are so fogged by the day-to-day grind of planning and preparing, that we forget to focus on our own mental well being. 

Teachers tend to ignore their stress and anxiety levels in lieu of their unconditional love for education and teaching children. But the gratification from teaching can sometimes come with pressure and performance management that’s always looming in a teacher’s mind.

It is important that we remember that teachers are indispensable in our entire education system and so is their mental health and well being.

A teacher is the first line of defence for their students. 

Experts say that stress gets passed on from teachers to their students.

Students in classrooms, which have teachers experiencing burnouts, are said to have high levels of cortisol- a kind of stress hormone. This is the prime reason why all teachers should pay attention to their mental health and well being.

Whether it is memory problems, sleep management, lesson planning, or curriculum completion, a teacher facing stress can end up having a detrimental impact on their students and the school. Let’s dive right in and understand the importance of mental health for teachers in more detail:

Q.4      Describe the nature and modes of guidance. What factors, do you think can influence the development of School Guidance Program?



1. Guidance is education itself. Guidance aims at educating the individual for understanding himself, unfolding his potentialities to their maximum so that he may eventually prove himself to be an adjusted and pragmatic member of the community. Guidance therefore is a significant education procedure. It is in short education itself.


2. Guidance is a process. Guidance is a process that enables an individual in discovering himself in the most satisfying and positive manner. It provides direction to enable an individual harness his potentialities, abilities, interests and aptitudes.


3. Guidance is a continuous process. Guidance is a dynamic and a non-stop process. In this process, an individual understands himself, learns to use maximum his own capacities, interests and other abilities. He continues his struggle for adjustment in different situations. He develops his capacity of decision-making.


4. Guidance is related with life. The process of guidance is related to life, its problems and challenges and how to face them. Problems and challenges are the building blocks of our personality. Guidance helps people to live a balanced and tension free-life with full satisfaction under the circumstances.


Q.5      Differentiate between counselling ad psychotherapy. What are the characteristics of a good counsellor.


Maybe you’ve felt called to clinical mental health counseling, but you don’t know what area to go into yet. Psychotherapy, counseling, and psychiatry are not all the same, so where do you start if you want to enter the field? 

Some of the most common terms for treatment and occupations in mental health can be confusing. Many of these words are interchangeable and can vary in connotation from person to person. The following sections help clarify what certain terms, such as psychotherapy vs counseling, mean — but to get an in-depth understanding of these concepts, the best way to begin is looking at online clinical mental health counseling master’s programs like the one here at Grace.

Psychotherapy vs Counseling

Psychotherapy and counseling both use psychological methods to help clients with a mental or emotional problem or disorder.

Some people make a small distinction between the two terms. “Counseling” is a brief treatment that targets a specific symptom or situation, while “psychotherapy” is a longer-term treatment that attempts to gain more insight into someone’s problems. However, many people use the terms interchangeably.

One caveat is that “counseling” can be used in other contexts. For instance, someone may receive career counseling or a couple may receive premarital counseling, which changes the meaning of the term. In the context of mental health, however, “counseling” often refers to “psychotherapy” or “therapy.”

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