AIOU Course Code 9055-2 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

Course: Psycholinguistics (9055)

Level: BS (English)

Assignment 2

 

Question 1.

The linguistic relativity hypothesis proposes that the particular language we speak influences the way we think about reality. Do you agree with the hypothesis? Support your answer with arguments.

Linguistic Relativity

In The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, Anne FadimanFadiman (1998). described the story of a Hmong refugee family, the Lees, and their intercultural interactions with doctors in Merced, California. The story is about Lia Lee, the second-youngest daughter who is diagnosed with severe epilepsy. Within the Hmong culture, epilepsy is not described in the same way that Western medical doctors describe it; epilepsy is described as qaug dab peg or “the spirit catches you and you fall down.” According to animism, the foundation for Hmong religious beliefs, both good and bad spirits surround us. Epileptic attacks are seen as the ability of an individual to temporarily join the spirit world. This is seen as honorable because the spirits have chosen that person to communicate with them.

The language used by Hmong and Americans to describe their understanding and knowledge of what was happening to Lia can be referred to as linguistic relativity. Linguistic relativity was first developed by Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf, and is known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis,Whorf (1956). or the principle of linguistic relativity. It describes the idea that language influences the perceptions and thoughts of people, thus affecting their behavior. In Hmong culture, there is no word for “epilepsy”; instead, the word is associated with the animistic worldview of the Hmong, which serves as a philosophical, religious, and spiritual guide to operating one’s life. The only way to describe epilepsy is related to this world view of spirits. In Western medicine and science, rationality, logic, and objectivity are important—scientific words and definitions are not abstract; rather, they are concrete.

Language and Thought Processes

Language is not just a means of communication. Our culture and even our thought processes are inflenced by language to some degree. The notion goes back to the nineteenth century scholar, Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835). Humboldt equated language and thought exactly in a hypothesis that has become known as the ‘Weltanschauung'(world-view) hypothesis. In Humboldt’s opinion, language completely determines thought and thought is impossible without language. Der mensch lebt mit den Gegenständen hauptsächlich, ja…sogar ausschliesslich so, wie die Sprache sie ihm zuführt. Humans mainly live with objects… even exclusively so, as language conveys them.

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

In the first half of the 20th century, language was seen as important in shaping our perception of reality. This was mostly due to Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf who said that language predetermines what we see in the world around us. In other words, language filters reality – we see the real world only in the categories of our language.This has become known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. It starts from the premise that everyone has a fundamental need to make sense of the world. We impose order on the world in order to make sense of it and language is the principle tool available to us for organising the world. Sapir (1956) expresses it thus, … the real world is to a large extent built up on the language habits of the group.

We see and hear and otherwise experience very largely as we do because the language habits of our community predispose certain choices of interpretation. The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world with different labels attached. Whorf (1956) goes on to say, We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significances as we do largely because we are parties to an agreement to organize it in this way – an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in the patterns of our language. The agreement is, of course, an implicit and unstated one, but its terms are absolutely obligatory; we cannot talk at all except by subscribing to the organization and classification of data which the agreement decrees.

In support of these views, Sapir and Whorf examined the differences between English and several other languages. They found that in Eskimo, for example, there are many words for ‘snow’: ‘falling snow’, ‘snow on the ground’, ‘hard-packed snow’, and so on. In Aztec, on the other hand, there is only one word used to represent ‘snow’, ‘cold’and ‘ice’. But it was not only simply with differences in vocabulary with which Sapir and Whorf were concerned. They were also interested in differences in structure. A case in point is that the Hopi language does not include any concept of time seen as a dimension. Realising how vitally important the concept of time is in Western physics, Whorf suggested that a Hopi physics would be radically different from English physics and that a Hopi physicist and an English physicist would find it virtually impossible to understand one anothe

Sapir and Whorf argued that individuals are not aware of the influence of language, and it is only when moving between cultures that individuals become aware. A commonly cited example of linguistic relativity is the example of how Inuit Eskimos describe snow. In English, there is only one word for snow, but in the Inuit language, many words are used to describe snow: “wet snow,” “clinging snow,” “frosty snow,” and so on.

The following case study further explains the idea behind linguistic relativity:

Carol serves as a program director for a local nonprofit in the Washington DC area. Her organization has received a federal grant to implement employment training and resources to serve the large and growing Somali population in the area. The grant requires her organization to track outcomes and the impact of the training program on participants’ lives. Each participant is required to attend an exit interview session conducted by a staff person.

Now imagine that you are Carol’s boss and you have been updated about this situation. What suggestions do you have for Carol and Pattie as they continue their work?

There are a number of ways to think about the work. In cultural intelligence, understanding how to adapt your behavior is critical. The following are questions that you should think about in order to help Carol and Pattie adapt their behaviors:

What emotions come up for you in this work?

Are the emotions negative or positive? How does it fuel your work?

What is the influence of language on evaluation?

What body language do you notice? What does it tell you? How can it be helpful to our work to identify verbal and nonverbal cues?

What are we doing that works?

What do we know does not work in this project?

What are the learning opportunities for all?

Asking these questions is a start toward continuing the good work that Carol and Pattie have already begun. As the two move forward in their work and learn more about what works and what does not work, they will learn to ask and reflect on questions that are inclusive to other cultures

Question 2.What is meant by language motivation? Explain the role of motivation in language learning. Support your answer with examples.

MOTIVATION

The definition of motivation has been diversely described as the unquestionable reality of human experience. Most scientists believe that motivation is a hypothetical cause of actions. That means motivation is a mental event that decides the course of action. The Encarta 97 Encyclopaedia defines motivation as “It is the cause of an organism’s behaviour or the reason that an organism carries out some activity.” According to Webster, to motivate is to provide with an incentive or motive, and the synonyms of motive are cause, purpose, idea, or reason.Are these definitions appropriate for a teacher to inspire his or her students? Initially, the researcher has to review the historical origins of motivational concepts. As a result, he should be able to discover in the course of this history not only the origins of the general concept of motivation, but also the beginning of such specific concepts as instinct, drive, incentive and reinforcement. Where does the motivation come from? Perhaps, people have always looked for someone or something to motivate themselves from the inside, like a good teacher, friend and parent.

The nature of motivation

The term “motivation” was originally derived from the Latin word movere, which means “to move”. However, this one word is obviously an inadequate definition for our purpose here. What is motivation? How do you create, foster and maintain motivation? It is not too straightforward to define motivation, which is why; everyone can make their own definition so that there are several definitions of motivation. According to Scott, motivation is a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired results. Motivation has three distinct features:

1) It results from a felt need. Motivation triggers behaviour, impelling a person to action;

2) It is goal directed. Motivation is a driving state that channels behaviour into a specific course that is fulfilment of a felt need;

3) It sustains behaviour in progress. It persists until the satisfaction or reduction of a need state occurs.Motivation is a personal and internal feeling. The feeling arises from needs and wants. Human needs are unlimited. Fulfilment of one set of needs gives rise to other needs. Therefore, motivation is a continuous process.

Background definitions of motivation

Motivation seems so clear to many of us, whether we possess it or not, and often we ascribe actions and outcomes to its immense force. In the Collins Dictionary, motivation is defined as “The act or an instance of motivating desire to do; interest or drive incentive or inducement (and in terms of psychology), the process that arouses, sustains and regulates human and animal behaviour.” Similarly, the Oxford Dictionary (1993) describes motivation as “A reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way, or desire or willingness to do something or possess enthusiasm.” Clearly, in both accounts, motivation is defined as the condition where a person is induced to act in a certain way, or where a certain subject or activity stimulates a person’s desire to participate. According to Brown (1987: 114), “motivation is commonly thought of as an inner drive. Impulse, emotion or desire to that moves one to a particular action”. He identifies three types of motivation in the first edition of his book (Brown, 1981: in Ellis, 1985: 117).

For Compell and Pritchard (1976), motivation has to do with a set of independent/dependent variable relationships that explain the direction, amplitude and persistence of on individual’s behaviour, holding constant the effects of aptitude, skills and understanding of the task and the constraints operating in the environment.Keller (1983 in Crookes and Schmidt, 1991) defines what motivation is in current psychology: “motivation refers to the choice people make as to what experiences or goals they will approach or avoid and the degree of effort they will exert in that respect.”

Gardner and Lambert (1972) posit two main types of motivation: integrative and instrumental.

Integrative motivation refers to the extent to which a learner is prepared to adopt the culture of the target community. Instrumental motivation is applied to the situation where a learner may need the target language in order to achieve a specific objective.According to Gardner and Lambert (1959),motivation is identified primarily with the learner’s orientation towards the goal of learning a second language. They are the ones who first made the distinction between integrative motivation and instrumentamotivation, which has influenced virtually all second language research in this area. Negative motivation is identified with positive attitudes towards the target language group and the potential for integrating into that group or at the very least an interest in meeting and integrating with members of the target language group. Instrumental motivation refers to more functional reasons for learning a language: to get a better job or promotion or to pass a required examination. This distinction is similar to that made between “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” motivation in general learning theory. İt is clear that the two kinds of motivation “do not exclude each other: most learners are motivated by a mixture of integrative and instrumental reason” (Littlewood, 1984: 57).

Gardner (1985), on the other hand, proposes thatthe following equation can be used to represent the components of motivation:

Motivation = Effort + Desire to Achieve a Goal + Altitudes

As Elli (1975: 117) has observed, there has been no general agreement about definitions of motivation and attitudes or their relation to one another. Consequently, the term motivation has been used as “a general cover term-a dustbin-to include a number of possibly distinct concepts, each of which may have different origins and different effects and require different classroom treatment” (McDonough, 1981: 153).

According to Victor Frankl, a well-known psychiatrist and philosopher, “What a person really needs in life is struggling for a goal that is worthy of him. Each man knows in his heart what his assignment in life is. Aim at what your conscience wants you to do and success will follow you.” That seems to coincide with the findings that motivation is one of the major characteristics common to individuals who are outstandingly successful in their fields

Psychological approach to motivation

Motivation has been a core theme in psychology over the past twenty years. Indeed, it is safe to say that today it is one of the essential components of the most modern theories of learning, personality and social behaviour. There is one barrier to this remarkable development; however, the particular principle of motivation employed by the majority of psychologists is based on an outmoded paradigm suggested by Cannon 1934) in his classical assertion of local  Otheories of hunger and thirst. Cannon’s theories were good in their days, but the new facts available on the physiological basis of motivation demand that we abandon the older conceptualizations and follow new theories, not only in the study of motivation itself, but also in the application of motivational concepts to other areas of psychology.

MOTIVATION IN A GENERAL TERM

Motivation is a general term that states the individual’s  positive attitudes in a certain aspect of his  environment. As a result, his behaviour is both  initiated and directed. We can say that motives have  an energizing function and a directing function. We  use terms such as “need”, “want”, “interest”, to  indicate certain aspects or conditions of motivation.  We infer these conditions of motivation in terms of the  way an individual is reacting. We infer hunger when he  eats or thirst when he drinks. We also infer needs for  affection or interest in science, because of individual  behaviour. Because all human beings show certain  behaviour under certain environmental conditions, we  have certain motives because we are the members of  the human race. We say such motives are primary  motives. These motives include such psychological  needs as the need for food and water. Other  behaviours are more specific and derived from primary  motives for example an interest in science or the love  of money. The examples of such motives are called  secondary motives. They are learned and very

important in accounting for learning.

Motivation in school learning

It is no doubt that motivation is an important factor for  success in learning. It is the combination of two factors: Learning purpose and attitude; if knowledge is  important for the learner, learning occurs without any  need to learn it. Teachers are concerned about developing a  particular kind of motivation in their students – the  motivation to learn. Many elements make up the  motivation to learn. Planning, concentration on the  goal, metacognitive awareness of what you intend to  learn and how you intend to learn it, the active search  for new information, clear perception of feedback,  pride and satisfaction in achievement, and no anxiety  or fear of failure. Thus, motivation to learn involves  more than wanting or intending to learn. It includes the  quality of the student’s mental effort)

MOTIVATION AND TEACHING

When a number of teachers are observed in action,  those who are most effective in connecting with students are from poor cultural and economic  backgrounds. Effective teachers know and love their subjects, and their enthusiasm is contagious. They love Learning, and they are not afraid to admit they do not know all the answers. They encourage students to question constantly, to search for answers, and to  learn for the pure joy of learning. One of the best characteristics of the teacher is to  create or increase motivation in students in order to  teach, especially the English language. What makes students lack motivation? Is itapathy, or bad attitudes,  or crowded classrooms, or no parental support, or  poor academic skill? Some psychologists say or  believe these;

(1) When students are bound to fail or be ridiculed for making mistakes

(2) When their good  behaviour goes unnoticed and unrewarded.

(3) When  they are tired of being compared to other people of  their age and are found lacking.

(4) When all their  energy is focused on personal problems that they  cannot handle.

Prepare your student to advance

Preparing students for advance is a significant part of

teaching, but it is often the bane of a teacher’s life. It  can be a very stressful time for both teacher and  class, and getting the most out of the students can be  tough. A few considerations can help a lot, though,  turning many courses into a constructive and  worthwhile process Preparing students in advance may help with the  different lessons. During the conversations with the  students, the teacher can refer to the more  complicated tasks they will be asked to perform later during the year. Teaching students how to learn may  also help them to master the difficult subject. Treat students as individual learners The idea of learning styles emerged from a desire to  see each student as an individual. The irony is that  learning style theories lump people into categories  (that are not even real!) and remove their individuality. A good teacher embraces the idea that each student  is an individual with various experiences, different  levels of knowledge about the topic, and a unique  perspective of the world  Treating students as individual learners instead of  comparing them to others may stimulate their  motivation toward education in a positive way. People  may learn in different ways, at different rates of speed,  and everyone has the ability to learn. Many parents  may compare their own children with their friends’,  without giving room for differences in mental and  physical development, individual interest and varying  levels of natural ability. By treating students as  individual learners, a teacher’s perception of a student  as a talented individual may become a lifeline that  may help him survive the difficulties during the school  years as well as throughout the life.

Self-motivation

Self-motivation is defined as staying motivated by  one’s own interest. One should be a self-motivated  person, as self-motivation is the key to living a  satisfying life. Self-motivation plays a vital role in  one’s own life, as it enables one to make self- assessment as often as one can. The process of self- assessment discloses one’s strengths and weakness by which one can increase strength and strive to  overcome weakness. In this way, self-motivation leads  to the desired success in life. Self-motivation  states a will to learn. All effective  learning is a desire on the part of the learner for  knowledge and understanding. The speed and  efficiency in learning are closely related with the  aspiration and the will to learn. Knowledge of results,  high aspiration and clear goals are important  especially if the student is encouraged to set his own  goals and seek superior remote goals.

Question 3

What are Language Based Learning Difficulties and how do they effect a child’s language ability?

 

Language-based learning disabilities are problems with age-appropriate reading, spelling, and/or writing. This disorder is not about how smart a person is. Most people diagnosed with learning disabilities have average to superior intelligence.

What are some signs or symptoms of a Language-based Learning Disability?

Dyslexia has been used to refer to the specific learning problem of reading. The term language-based learning disability, or just learning disabilities, is better because of the relationship between spoken and written language. Many children with reading problems have spoken language problems.

The child with dyslexia has trouble almost exclusively with the written (or printed) word. The child who has dyslexia as part of a larger language learning disability has trouble with both the spoken and the written word.

These problems may include difficulty with the following:

Expressing ideas clearly, as if the words needed are on the tip of the tongue but won’t come out. What the child says can be vague and difficult to understand (e.g., using unspecific vocabulary, such as “thing” or “stuff” to replace words that cannot be remembered). Filler words like “um” may be used to take up time while the child tries to remember a word.

Learning new vocabulary that the child hears (e.g., taught in lectures/lessons) and/or sees (e.g., in books)

Understanding questions and following directions that are heard and/or read

Recalling numbers in sequence (e.g., telephone numbers and addresses)

Understanding and retaining the details of a story’s plot or a classroom lecture

Reading and comprehending materialSpeech Image – 3

Learning words to songs and rhymes

Telling left from right, making it hard to read and write since both skills require this directionality

Letters and numbers

Learning the alphabet

Identifying the sounds that correspond to letters, making learning to read difficult

Mixing up the order of letters in words while writing

Mixing up the order of numbers that are a part of math calculations

Spelling

Memorizing the times tables

Telling time

What Therapies for Kids can do

A speech-language pathologist (SLP) is part of a team consisting of the parents/caregivers and educational professionals (i.e., teacher(s), special educators, psychologist). we will evaluate spoken (speaking and listening) and written (reading and writing) language for children who have been identified by their teachers and parents as having difficulty.

For preschool students, the SLP may do any or all of the following:

Gather information about literacy experiences in the home

Observe the child during classroom activities

Evaluate the child’s ability to understand verbal and written directions and to pay attention to written information on the blackboard, daily plans, etc

Look for awareness of print

See if the child recognizes familiar signs and logos

Watch to see if a child holds a book correctly and turns the pages

Determine if the child recognizes and/or writes name

Evaluate whether the child demonstrates pretend writing (writing that resembles letters and numbers)

See if the child recognizes and/or writes letters

Have the child tap or clap out the different syllables in words

Evaluate if the child can tell whether two words rhyme or give a list of words that rhyme with a specified word

For the older child, the SLP may also do any or all of the following:

Observe whether the child can read and understand information on handouts and in textbooks

Assess the student’s ability to hear and “play with” sounds in words (phonological awareness skills)

Have the child put together syllables and sounds to make a word

See if the child can break up a word into its syllables and/or sounds (e.g., “cat” has one syllable but three sounds c-a-t)

Assess the older child’s phonological memory by having him or her repeat strings of words, numbers, letters, and sounds of increasing length

For all children, the SLP will also provide a complete language evaluation and also look at articulation and executive function. 

Executive functioning is the ability to plan, organize, and attend to details (e.g., does he or she plan/organize his or her writing?  Is he or she able to keep track of assignments and school materials?).

Speech Image – 2Goals of speech and language treatment for the child with a reading problem target the specific aspects of reading and writing that the student is missing. For example, if the student is able to read words but is unable to understand the details of what has been read, comprehension is addressed. If a younger student has difficulty distinguishing the different sounds that make up words, treatment will focus on activities that support growth in this skill area (rhyming, tapping out syllables, etc.).

Individualized programs  are  always related to school work for the school aged child. Therefore, materials for treatment are taken from or are directly related to content from classes (e.g., textbooks for reading activities, assigned papers for writing activities, practice of oral reports for English class). Your child will be taught to apply newly learned language strategies to classroom activities and assignments. To assist the child best, the SLP may work side-by-side with the child in their classroom(s).

Intervention with spoken language  (speaking and listening) is designed to support the development of written language. For example, after listening to a story, the student may be asked to state and write answers to questions. He or she may be asked to give a verbal and then a written summary of the story. Articulation (pronunciation) is treated in a way that supports written language.For example, if the child is practicing saying words to improve pronunciation of a certain sound, he or she may be asked to read these words from a printed list.

Q4 learning aptitude, motivation and styles are considered inherent characteristics of an individual. Discuss in detail why they are considered inherent and how they can assist in language leaming?

you have a kid or student that’s being educated in a blended classroom or hybrid learning environment for the first time, chances are they could be feeling a bit lost.

From adapting to digital coursework to staying disciplined with minimal face-to-face interactions, getting used to this new type of education may cause them to struggle — especially if their individual learning style isn’t being addressed.

Gaining momentum in the 1960s through tests like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the learning style theory posits that different students learn best when information is presented to them in a particular way. The learning style theory was popularized in 1992 when Fleming and Mills suggested a new model of learning. The VARK Model is used to explain the different ways that students learn. For example, if a student is a “visual learner,” a verbal lecture alone might leave them feeling unengaged, confused, and frustrated.

While some critics doubt the efficacy of the learning style theory, its popularity in schools today makes it a topic well-worth paying attention to — specifically if some of your students are having a tough go at retaining information while learning remotely.

At Sphero, we believe that individual learning styles are important for both parents and teachers to consider, as your struggling students might need coursework uniquely presented to them to effectively absorb the material.

With this guide, we will help you identify which of the four core learning styles best suits your students, as well as provide you with helpful resources to easily implement changes in your curriculum.

What are the four learning styles

The four core learning styles include visual, auditory, reading and writing, and kinesthetic. Here’s an overview of all four leaning style types.

Visual – Visual learners are better able to retain information when it’s presented to them in a graphic depiction, such as arrows, charts, diagrams, symbols, and more. Similar to how designers use visual hierarchy to emphasize specific design elements, visual learners thrive with clear pictures of information hierarchy.

Auditory – Sometimes referred to as “aural” learners, auditory learners prefer listening to information that is presented to them vocally. These learners work well in group settings where vocal collaboration is present and may enjoy reading aloud to themselves, too.

Reading & Writing – Focusing on the written word, reading and writing learners succeed with written information on worksheets, presentations, and other text-heavy resources. These learners are note-takers and perform strongly when they can reference written text.

Kinesthetic – Taking a physically active role, kinesthetic learners are hands-on and thrive when engaging all of their senses during course work. These learners tend to work well in scientific studies due to the hands-on lab component of the course.

4 Types of Learning Styles: Explaining the VARK Model

At HomeSphero TeamDec 08, 2020

There are 4 Types of Learning Styles.

If you have a kid or student that’s being educated in a blended classroom or hybrid learning environment for the first time, chances are they could be feeling a bit lost.

From adapting to digital coursework to staying disciplined with minimal face-to-face interactions, getting used to this new type of education may cause them to struggle — especially if their individual learning style isn’t being addressed.

Gaining momentum in the 1960s through tests like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the learning style theory posits that different students learn best when information is presented to them in a particular way. The learning style theory was popularized in 1992 when Fleming and Mills suggested a new model of learning. The VARK Model is used to explain the different ways that students learn. For example, if a student is a “visual learner,” a verbal lecture alone might leave them feeling unengaged, confused, and frustrated.

While some critics doubt the efficacy of the learning style theory, its popularity in schools today makes it a topic well-worth paying attention to — specifically if some of your students are having a tough go at retaining information while learning remotely.

At Sphero, we believe that individual learning styles are important for both parents and teachers to consider, as your struggling students might need coursework uniquely presented to them to effectively absorb the material.

With this guide, we will help you identify which of the four core learning styles best suits your students, as well as provide you with helpful resources to easily implement changes in your curriculum.

What are the four learning styles

The four core learning styles include visual, auditory, reading and writing, and kinesthetic. Here’s an overview of all four leaning style types.

Visual – Visual learners are better able to retain information when it’s presented to them in a graphic depiction, such as arrows, charts, diagrams, symbols, and more. Similar to how designers use visual hierarchy to emphasize specific design elements, visual learners thrive with clear pictures of information hierarchy.

Auditory – Sometimes referred to as “aural” learners, auditory learners prefer listening to information that is presented to them vocally. These learners work well in group settings where vocal collaboration is present and may enjoy reading aloud to themselves, too.

Reading & Writing – Focusing on the written word, reading and writing learners succeed with written information on worksheets, presentations, and other text-heavy resources. These learners are note-takers and perform strongly when they can reference written text.

Kinesthetic – Taking a physically active role, kinesthetic learners are hands-on and thrive when engaging all of their senses during course work. These learners tend to work well in scientific studies due to the hands-on lab component of the course.

The VARK Model: Four Types of Learning Styles

Successfully implementing the VARK model into your classroom means recognizing your students’ educational needs on a fundamental level.

Learning Style Type #1: Visual Learners

How to Identify This Learning Style Type: Visual Learners

Visual learners like to look at graphs and charts on a smartphones, papers, and laptops.

Visual learners enjoy analyzing and observing things like pictures, diagrams, and charts that showcase clear information in order of importance. You can oftentimes find visual learners by paying attention to students who are doodling, list-making, or note-taking.

Teach This Learning Style Type: Visual Learners

Whether you’re using a whiteboard, smartboard, or giving a presentation, make sure visual learners have enough time to process and absorb visual cues. When possible, visual learners should have access to supplementary handouts that detail subject matter through clear visuals whenever possible. Additionally, allow these learners to draw pictures, diagrams, or doodles of what they are learning to reinforce retention.

Sphero and littleBits Activities Visual Learners Will Love

With this visual learning activity, your child will be introduced to Sphero’s Draw canvas by drawing shapes that represent code. Then, they can execute that code with a Sphero robot. Perfect for visual learners, your students will be able to hand-draw their very own robot to showcase their programming skills.

Find This Type of Learning Style: Auditory Learners

Auditory learners learn best by hearing the teacher speak out loud to the full class.

Auditory learners prefer learning subject matter that is presented through sound. You can find auditory learners by paying attention to students who are actively engaging with a lecture. You may find them nodding along or asking frequent questions rather than taking written notes. Additionally, these learners might read slowly, read aloud to themselves, or repeat things you tell them to help with retention.

How to Teach This Type of Learning Style: Auditory Learners

If you’re giving a lecture, make sure you are addressing your auditory learners directly to get them involved in the conversation. Have them do things like verbally detailing a newconcept they just learned, and ask them follow-up questions while giving them the time they need to respond. Group discussions, engaging videos, and audio recordings are other great ways to engage auditory learners in your classroom.

Sphero and littleBits Activities Auditory Learners Will Love

Back to the Future

In this exciting activity for auditory learners, your students will recreate the Delorean time machine from the “Back to the Future” movies. First, they will program RVR to accelerate to a speed of 88 to time travel. Then, they will build their very own invention with the littleBits RVR Topper Kit, which triggers a buzzer when RVR is safely back to the future. If your students have never seen the “Back to the Future” movies, you can show them short scenes to help orient this activity.

 

Q.5 Researchers believe that language learners posses an affective filter which affects language acquisition. If a student possesses a high filter, he is less likely to engage in language learning as compared to a learner with a lower affective filter.

affective filter

The “affective filter” is a theoretical construct in second language acquisition that attempts to explain the emotional variables associated with the success or failure of acquiring a second language. The affective filter is an invisible psychological filter that can either facilitate or hinder language production in a second language.

When the filter is high:

Students experience stress

Students feel anxious and self-conscious

The lack of self-confidence might inhibit success in acquiring the second language

Students are reluctant to participate and seek out opportunities to collaborate

If modifications are not being made, the students will experience boredom and disinterest

When the filter is low:

 

Students become risk-takers as they manipulate language

Students feel safe in making mistakes without judgement and constant corrections

Students feel empowered to interact with their peers and seek out models of language

Students feel safe in answering questions and sharing their thinking with peers and the teacher

How do I lower the affective filter in my classroom within Collaborative Literacy?

Try not to overemphasize error correction. In other words, instead of correcting the student; model the correct use of the language in a supportive stance.

Utilize the ELL teacher notes laid out within the teacher’s manual to scaffold your instruction.

Institute a policy in the classroom that prohibits students from making fun of peers or laughing at errors. This is directly supported by the social learning goals weaved throughout every lesson. This sets the expectations for how students work together as they collaborate.

As students share and reflect at the end of each lesson, share your observations and facilitate the brainstorming of solutions to challenges

Take advantage of the first units within Being a Writer and Making Meaning. This will build a strong literacy community and set up a safe place for learning.

Equip strong language models with strategies to support their language learner peers.

Consistently encourage risk-taking reminding students that your classroom is a safe place to learn.

Set individual goals with students and celebrate growth!

When the affective filter is low, the learner is in an emotionally safe place. These feelings of safety lower imaginary walls, promoting more successful language acquisition. This type of environment becomes a welcoming invitation to keep learning.

causes a high affective filter?

Stress and discomfort will adversely affect learning. In order to be able to learn effectively, a learner should feel safe and comfortable in the learning environment. The learner should not experience high levels of stress or anxiety during the learning process. Plus, the learner should feel motivated to participate in learning activities without worrying about making mistakes.

 

Think about it for a minute: the times you are able to study the hardest are probably times when you feel comfortable and safe. You are relaxed and not under any pressure. You feel calm, both mentally and physically. This is what we want to replicate in our EFL classrooms.

 

Background of the study

These days, English is taken as the common language in all parts of the world. It may be a foreign language, but international in its significance. English language is spoken, read and understood in most parts of the world. Because of this language, people of the world communicate and belong to the whole shares of the world. It is widely accepted that English has become the language of choice for many international scholarly journals. According to Crystal (1997), conversation without a common language between academicians from different nationalities, both in the virtual and real world would prove impossible. English language is now the most spread of the entire world’s language since it is spoken by both non-natives and natives. According to Graddol (1997), there are three types of speakers using English: those who speak it as a first language (around 375 million speakers), those who speak it as a second or additional language (again some 375 million speakers), and those who learn it as a foreign language (about 750 million learners). As to this language scholar, English language plays a very significant role in different areas worldwide. For instance, it serves as a working language of international organizations and conferences, scientific publications, international banking (economic affairs and trade), advertising for global brands, audio-visual cultural products such as films, TV, popular music, international tourism, tertiary (university) education, international safety (airline and maritime travels), international law, as a “relay language” in interpretation and translation, technology transfer, and international communication (Graddol, 1997).

Statement of the problem

There are many research findings available in the developed world, so we need a link with them to widen the horizon of our generation. Specially, the young generation needs to acquaint the available knowledge through English (Mohamed, 2004). There are some research findings conducted locally regarding the attitude of students towards learning English as a foreign language. For instance, Medhanie (1986) and Mohamed (2004) conducted on this topic and both of them show that students have negative attitudes towards their English learning. The current researcher wants to investigate factors affecting the attitudes of students towards learning English as a foreign language. This differentiates the study from the previous researches because their focus was just to find out the attitudes of students towards learning English. Actually, there are some international research studies concerning factors affecting second/foreign language learning not students’ attitudes. Indeed, this confirms the researcher’s present work different from the other researchers.

students learning a second language must be both able and willing to adopt various aspects of behaviour, including verbal behaviour which characterizes members of the other linguistic-cultural group. This obviously Involves both cognitive and affective components and emphasize that cognitive factors such as attitudes and motivation are undoubtedly Implicated in second language acquisition.

This study aimed at investigating on factors affecting the attitudes of grade 10 students towards learning EFL in Debremarkos Comprehensive Secondary School in Debre Markos town, Ethiopia. The researcher randomly selected 103 sample students (10%) out of the total population (1030) for the study. In order to gather data, a questionnaire was carefully and systematically adapted and designed. Nine sample students were also selected purposely for focus group discussion, and Grade 10 English teachers were selected for the interview. Then, the data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings of the study mainly showed that the attitudes of grade 10 students towards learning EFL is positive. There are social factors (e.g., English native speakers, peer groups and learners’ parents) affecting students’ attitudes positively. On the other hand, educational context factors like English language teachers, the English language learning situations (e.g., the classrooms, arrangements of seats and the physical learning environment) had negative impacts on students’ attitude. However, the findings showed that target language learners have positive attitudes towards the other educational context factor that is the English textbook of grade 10 which means English as a foreign language teaching materials in the study’s context affect students’ attitudes positively. By lowering the psychological variables (i.e. affective filters) for the target language learners, it is possible to aid the language learning process. Thus, as the implication of this study considers, the physical learning environment should be improved, and to achieve this, the government should work in conjunction with the school principals, teachers and societies.

Language attitudes have something to do with students’ EFL learning. These attitudes may influence students to learn or not to learn English language in the required manner. There are some factors like educational factors, social factors, learner personality factors and other factors which in turn affect the attitudes of learners towards learning EFL. Therefore, it needs to conduct research to know the extent to which these factors affect learners’ attitudes towards learning EFL. This study was done on factors affecting the attitudes of grade 10 students towards learning EFL. To gather valid data, the researcher used questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion. He analyzed the gathered data quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings of the study show that social factors affected students’ attitudes positively, but educational context factors had negative impacts on students’ attitudes. However, learners have positive attitudes towards the other educational context factor, i.e. English textbook of grade 10.

These days, English is taken as the common language in all parts of the world. It may be a foreign language, but international in its significance. English language is spoken, read and understood in most parts of the world. Because of this language, people of the world communicate and belong to the whole shares of the world. It is widely accepted that English has become the language of choice for many international scholarly journals. According to Crystal (1997), conversation without a common language between academicians from different nationalities, both in the virtual and real world would prove impossible. English language is now the most spread of the entire world’s language since it is spoken by both non-natives and natives. According to Graddol (1997), there are three types of speakers using English: those who speak it as a first language (around 375 million speakers), those who speak it as a second or additional language (again some 375 million speakers), and those who learn it as a foreign language (about 750 million learners). As to this language scholar, English language plays a very significant role in different areas worldwide. For instance, it serves as a working language of international organizations and conferences, scientific publications, international banking (economic affairs and trade), advertising for global brands, audio-visual cultural products such as films, TV, popular music, international tourism, tertiary (university) education, international safety (airline and maritime travels), international law, as a “relay language” in interpretation and translation, technology transfer, and international communication (Graddol, 1997).

In the Ethiopian context, English language uses for different purposes in some areas like Ethiopian Telecommunication Corporation, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and Ethiopian Airlines although it is in side to side the Amharic language. English is more of a foreign language than a second language in Ethiopia. This is mainly because English is so infrequently used in daily life outside the classroom and students do not have the opportunity to learn the language informally. The designation of English, as a second official language, of the country is, thus, according to Stoddart (1986), misleading. The role of English in Ethiopia, at least outside the educational system, resembles more closely that of countries where English is considered a foreign language (like, Sweden) than that of countries where it is considered a second language used relatively widely as a lingua franca (for instance, in some urban settings in Nigeria). Thus, the main way students have been expected to learn English has been by using it as a medium of instruction. Some scholars have questioned the extent to which students can be successful in using English as a medium. As the English language serves as a medium of instruction from junior secondary to tertiary levels of educational sector of the country, it is somewhat not satisfactory for students to master it within the specified period of time in the classroom.

Based on his field surveys in the mid-1980s, Stoddart (1986) had the following to say about the English language ability of the vast majority of students in Ethiopia:

Students do not possess sufficient English even to understand what they hear from their teachers or read in their textbooks, let alone to participate actively the inability of students to function through English, the quality of teaching and learning in schools has been very adversely affected. At best, it means that mere rote learning students, and little enough of even simple comprehension by them of what they are being told. And at worst it means that some—possibly many—students whose English is not sufficient even for rote-learning spend most of their class hours copying down notes that the teacher has written on the blackboard, and transforming them in the process into complete nonsense. In such a situation it is no longer appropriate to call English as a medium of instruction; rather it has become a medium of obstruction. (pp. 6–7)

According to some researchers, the main reason for student failure in the secondary school is the inability to study through the medium of English and determining it as a foreign language which restricts students’ opportunities to practice outside the classroom that is informal way of learning (Dendir, 1981).

Statement of the problem

There are many research findings available in the developed world, so we need a link with them to widen the horizon of our generation. Specially, the young generation needs to acquaint the available knowledge through English (Mohamed, 2004). There are some research findings conducted locally regarding the attitude of students towards learning English as a foreign language. For instance, Medhanie (1986) and Mohamed (2004) conducted on this topic and both of them show that students have negative attitudes towards their English learning. The current researcher wants to investigate factors affecting the attitudes of students towards learning English as a foreign language. This differentiates the study from the previous researches because their focus was just to find out the attitudes of students towards learning English. Actually, there are some international research studies concerning factors affecting second/foreign language learning not students’ attitudes. Indeed, this confirms the researcher’s present work different from the other researchers.

Thus, the main focus of the present study is concerned with the investigation and establishment of the factors affecting students’ attitudes towards learning English as a foreign language among high school students. Because the researcher believes that studying the factors may lead our students to afford themselves with different situations while learning English language. This also in turn helps them reach higher levels in different fields of the study. However, to do this, students of English language should have a positive attitude towards their learning. It is widely accepted that an important predictor of success in a foreign language is students’ attitude towards it. In English as foreign language contexts, students who consider the learning of English as a positive and rewarding experience are less likely to suffer from foreign language anxiety. According to Gardner, Lambert and Burstal as cited in Stern (1987) suggest that there is a positive relation between learning outcomes and attitude towards learning a second or foreign language. Attitudes are derived from values we ascribe to objects or ideas. As Wright says “… values are the basis for our attitude” (Wright, 1987, p. 21). We have positive or negative attitudes based on our values. According to him, if a student believes in the importance of mastering second or foreign language and acts accordingly, then it shows that she/he values learning of the language and so has a positive attitude towards it. On the other hand, if a student does not believe in the importance of mastering a second or foreign language and acts accordingly, then it shows that she/he does not value the learning of the language and so has a negative attitude towards it. This research aims at investigating the factors affecting the attitude of students towards learning English as a foreign language in Debre Markos government Comprehensive High school, found in East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The researcher intends to conduct his research on grade 10 students. He believes that students from this school seem to have an attitude problem and less achievement towards learning English as a foreign language. As the researcher had been a student in that school for 7 years (4–10 grades), the learners seem to demonstrate the problem by how haphazardly they perform in their continuous assessment tasks, and the excuses they make for not doing their homework. Furthermore, most students do not seem to value the opportunity they get in school to practice English. Instead, they seem to prefer their own; first language (Amharic), even during English periods. Considering the steady decline in results both nationally and provincially, at (the Grade-10-year ended results) for recently, the learners’ attitude problem towards English language may probably account for the situation.

In brief, the absence of willingness or what seemed to be attitude problem in the learning of English amongst the learners in Debre Markos Comprehensive High School could be the result of the lack of crucial English language proficiency and achievement. Thus, the researcher intends to identify the factors affecting the attitudes of students towards learning English language. And finally, he intends to look for possible solutions for such problems.

According to C. Gardner (1985), as cited in Lightbown and Spada (1993, p. 39), language research findings show that positive attitude and motivation are related to success in second language learning. Furthermore, Brown (1994, p. 127) elaborates the exact relation of attitudes and motivation in light with language learning and success or failure in the way that it seems intuitively clear … that second language learners benefit from positive attitudes and that negative attitudes may lead to decrease motivation and in all likelihood because of the decreased input and interaction to the unsuccessful attainment of proficiency. According to C. Gardner (1985, p. 39–49), there are about five characteristics of attitude to be considered in learning second language:

* Attitudes are cognitive (i.e. are capable of being thought about) and affective (i.e. have feelings and emotions attached to them)

* Attitudes are dimensional rather than bipolar-they vary in degree of favourability/unfavourability.

* Attitudes predispose a person to act in a certain way, but the relationship between attitudes is not a strong one.

* Attitudes are learned, not inherited or genetically endowed.

* Attitudes tend to persist but they can be modified by experience.

causes a high affective filter?

Stress and discomfort will adversely affect learning. In order to be able to learn effectively, a learner should feel safe and comfortable in the learning environment. The learner should not experience high levels of stress or anxiety during the learning process. Plus, the learner should feel motivated to participate in learning activities without worrying about making mistakes.

 

Think about it for a minute: the times you are able to study the hardest are probably times when you feel comfortable and safe. You are relaxed and not under any pressure. You feel calm, both mentally and physically. This is what we want to replicate in our EFL classrooms. Though the affective filter is just one of many theories related to learning a foreign language, it is one worth remembering because as teachers it is something we have a certain amount of control over. And we all know, happy students = a happy classroom = a happy teacher!

Educational context

Apart from informal situations where the learner may have the opportunity to learn and speak the target language in the community, school offers formal learning of the target language to the leaner. Conteh (2002, p. 193) indicates that the factors influencing learners’ attitudes and the learning situation are “general atmosphere of the learning, the classroom dynamics, opportunities for student-student and student-teacher interaction, and students’ perception of the teacher’s commitment to their learning”. Educational contexts include the learning situation that is how language is learned, the English language teacher who considers how variables like physical, social and cultural differences that influence the learning-teaching process in to an account, and the teaching-learning materials.

Learning situation

Researchers suggest that the learning situation has an effect on the attitudes of the learners and their success. According to Ehrman (1996, p. 142), anxiety and anger may influence students’ attitudes and motivations, especially, in the situation where the English language subject is compulsory. Another person, Littlewood (2001, p. 21) indicates that in a country where English language is a compulsory subject, there is a link between attitudes of the learners and teachers’ authority, and learners’ ability to participate in the classroom. In such conditions, it is the teacher who controls the class and students are not free from such domination which results demotivation and unwillingness among the learners, and the failure comes then. Furthermore, there is another important feature that needs to be given emphasis in the teaching-learning situation that is time. The number of hours available for learning and teaching the language will obviously influence the level of attainment.

Another person pairs the motivation factor with opportunity and points out that successful learning of the language in the school situation depends upon both motivation and attitudes with the range of opportunities for its use outside the classroom, and that there are vast discrepancies in the range in this range in different rural and urban areas. For instance, Krogh (1990, p. 102) reveals that the need to communicate comes from inside a child, while the norms of the society give shape to the communication. She goes on to say that language learning is easy when it is whole, real and relevant; when it makes sense and is functional; when it is encouraged in the context of its use; when the learner chooses to use it. In other words, other, more rigid systems make learning difficult. In this regard, Pride (1979, p. 19) also puts forward this idea in that good learning depends on at least three variables, namely aptitude, motivation and opportunities to include all those activities both within and outside the classroom which expose the learner to the language and which afford him an opportunity to practice what he has learned. He further argues that if we want to enable the student of English, then we must put him in situations which demand the use of English.

The foreign language teacher

Favorable feelings and experiences with the teacher, classmates and materials can forge positive attitudes towards learning a second language (Day & Ford, 1998, p. 25). A learner who has better interaction with his teacher may develop a positive attitude towards the target language than those who have less interaction. “Without communication between teachers and learners, there will be little chance of effective education” (Spolsky, 1972, p. 3).

The learners’ parents

One of the social contexts to be taken into consideration is the various parent factors such as their education, religion, culture, socioeconomic status, place of birth, and knowledge of the target language (Spolsky, 1989, p. 26). These factors determine the parents’ rationales, goals and priorities. Larsen and Long (1991, p. 178) state that in several studies investigating the parental role and the development of attitudes towards the speakers of the target language, it was found out that the learners’ attitudes reflected their parents’ attitudes towards the target language. According to them, it becomes evident that learners adopt their parents’ attitude towards the target language and this in turn affects the learners’ achievements in learning the language.

I think it is meaningful to distinguish the main roles which are relevant to their success in a second language program. For better labels, I am going to refer to them as the active and passive roles even though these labels are not completely descriptive. By the active role I mean that role whereby the parent actively and consciously encourages the students to learn the language. In the active role the parent monitors the child’s language learning performance and to the extent that he plays this role and attempts to promote success. That is the parent watches over the child and makes sure that he or she does his or her homework, encourages him to do well, and in general reinforces his or her success. I believe it is safe to assume that differences in the extent to which parents vary in this encouragement function would have some influence on the child’s performance in any learning situation.

 

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