AIOU Course Code 8623-2 Solved Assignments Spring 2022

Assignment No.2


Course: Elementary Education (8623)

Semester: Spring, 2022

Level:              B.Ed.



Define instructional technology and compare different kinds of projected and non-projected aids.

Instructional technology is a specific technology field that deals with creating resources for learning. The nature of instructional technology is traced back to academics like B.B. Seels and R.C. Ritchie, who defined it as “the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management and evaluation of processes and resources for learning.” From this definition, it is clear that instructional technology does involve things like Web-based training and other learning resources. It is more of a comprehensive term for all of those designs that accommodate successful learning technologies. Different kinds of projected and non-projected aids: Using non-projected visuals Teachers can use these for learners of all ages. They can involve groups to work collaboratively to prepare a presentation, with drawings and charts. There are many types of different charts: Organization charts, Classification charts, Time lines, Tabular charts, and Flowcharts. There are many types of graphs: Bar graphs, Pictorial graphs, Circle graphs, Line graphs. Posters Posters are easy to produce .They are used to catch and hold the viewer’s attention at least long enough to communicate a brief message quickly for a new topic or a special event. Cartoons Cartoons are very popular and familiar visual design. Cartoons are also easily and quickly read and appeal to learners of all ages. You can use cartoons to reinforce a point of instruction.

Specific objectives:

  1. To identify the age and sex of the population under studied.
  2. To identify the Technology of information that the Language School provides to facilitators.
  3. To point out the common mistakes students make when pronouncing.
  4. To determine the advantages and disadvantages that information Technology offers to Students.
  5. To suggest the usage of Technology of information at the Language School.
  6. To determine the attitude of the facilitators and students toward the use or implementation of ICT in the teaching process.



 Q.2     Discuss  different  types  of  behaviour  problems  usually  seen  in  children  at

elementary level. How can be the teachers prepared to tackle these problems

Schools across the country have special needs students. These students fit into a number of categories. This is essentially because of the vastness of special needs issues. A special needs child is often considered disabled in some way. These are children who have mild learning disabilities or profound developmental problems. The umbrella of special needs includes some children that would not be considered in this way.

Special needs children do not always have learning disabilities however. Some of them simply have needs that must be planned for and addressed within their learning environment. These cases include severe food allergies, terminal illnesses, emotional concerns, and motor skill delays. Schools must be equipped in a number of ways to deal with the ramifications of these sorts of cases.

Most common disabilities, seen in schools, fall under developmental concerns. This too is a vast umbrella unto itself. Every child and every case is individually different. There are some children that function at high capacities no matter what their disability is. Then there are other children with very low capacities to function in a school setting.

Teachers, administrators, and therapists need to be aware of these children and their specific needs. This is where parental involvement is paramount. Parents are able to speak for the child and relay their individual needs. Schools and school systems are able to provide specific services for special needs students. Special education teachers have long supplied students with expanded learning opportunities.

These educators are able to use cognitive appropriate teacher resources, teacher worksheets, and lesson plans. These tools are patterned for children with developmental issues. Not all disabled children need special classes. And, not all of them are capable of completing such classes. Here is where individual treatment again becomes critical. Remedial classes may be all that is required for some children with disabilities.



 What should be the characteristics of a well-managed classroom? Also identify principles related to sound management.

Students, as well as teachers, spend a majority of their time in classrooms and in school. The classroom should, therefore, be a stress-free environment where students and teachers feel comfortable spending so much time. It is essential to have a well-managed classroom to improve classroom efficiency and create an environment conducive to learning. A well-managed classroom is not limited to discipline, unlike the popular belief that discipline is the only vital management skill a teacher must have. There are various characteristics that describe a well-managed and efficient classroom. Student Engagement Classroom management includes various aspects, but one of the most vital is that the students are engaged. A well-managed classroom will keep the students engaged at all times in the learning process. Students are involved in the learning process, which helps foster higher-level thinking skills in students. Teaching creatively can be a major factor in student engagement because a lesson that is not interesting will cause the students to stop listening and become distracted. A more creative teaching method will capture the student’s attention and allow them to focus. Clear Expectations Expectations such as class objectives are clear in a well-managed classroom. Students know the material they will be tested on, as well as the teacher’s expectations for the various assignments they will be graded on


  1. 4

Discuss teacher made achievement tests. Construct six items of each, short answers, completion, true false, matching, multiple choice and essay type from the English of class VII (Public Sectgor).

Examinations are a very common assessment and evaluation tool in universities and there are many types of examination questions. This tips sheet contains a brief description of seven types of examination questions, as well as tips for using each of them: 1) multiple choice, 2) true/false, 3) matching, 4) short answer, 5) essay, 6) oral, and 7) computational. Remember that some exams can be conducted effectively in a secure online environment in a proctored computer lab or assigned as paper based or online “take home” exams.

Multiple choice

Multiple choice questions are composed of one question (stem) with multiple possible answers (choices), including the correct answer and several incorrect answers (distractors). Typically, students select the correct answer by circling the associated number or letter, or filling in the associated circle on the machine-readable response sheet.

Example: Distractors are:

  1. A) Elements of the exam layout that distract attention from the questions
  2. B) Incorrect but plausible choices used in multiple choice questions
  3. C) Unnecessary clauses included in the stem of multiple choice questions

Answer: B

Students can generally respond to these type of questions quite quickly. As a result, they are often used to test student’s knowledge of a broad range of content. Creating these questions can be time consuming because it is often difficult to generate several plausible distractors. However, they can be marked very quickly.

Tips for writing well multiple choice items:

Avoid Do use
In the stem:
  • Long / complex sentences
  • Trivial statements
  • Negatives and double-negatives
  • Ambiguity or indefinite terms, absolute statements, and broad generalization
  • Extraneous material
  • Item characteristics that provide a clue to the answer misconceptions

In the choices:

  • Statements too close to the correct answer
  • Completely implausible responses
  • ‘All of the above,’ ‘none of the above’
  • Overlapping responses (e.g., if ‘A’ is true)
In the stem:
  • Your own words – not statements straight out of the textbook
  • Single, clearly formulated problems

In the choices:

  • Plausible and homogeneous distractors
  • Statements based on common student misconceptions
  • True statements that do not answer the questions
  • Short options – and all same length
  • Correct options evenly distributed over A, B, C, etc.
  • Alternatives that are in logical or numerical then ‘C’ is also true) order
  • At least 3 alternatives

Suggestion: After each lecture during the term, jot down two or three multiple choice questions based on the material for that lecture. Regularly taking a few minutes to compose questions, while the material is fresh in your mind, will allow you to develop a question bank that you can use to construct tests and exams quickly and easily.



Describe the role of teacher training in deterioration of the education system. Suggest measures for improvement.


It has been found that only 10 % of Indian youth go to college. This percentage is 40-50% in developed countries. As per the available reports, two third of the Indian universities are providing sub-standard education while 90 % colleges in India are below average. Today, most of the institutions have become factory of degrees only. Students / teachers are running after attaining or providing degrees and not towards the gaining knowledge and wisdom. Attendance in the institution has dropped drastically and class room teaching is becoming only a ritual, to be followed mechanically. Though, it is said that the destiny of nation is shaped only in the class rooms, very little importance is being given to class room teaching. The overall scenario of higher education in India does not match with the global quality standards. It does not foster the global competencies and even does not make significant contribution to the national development. The present education system does not match with the needs and expectations of the employment sector. The role of the teacher assumes greater significance in this deteriorating scenario of higher education. It is a daunting task for the teachers to improve the quantity, quality and equality in higher education. It is said that a good teacher can bring the entire world to the class room. The teacher being a sculptor has to play multidimensional role to inculcate the nuances of subjects to the heterogeneous cult of students. He has to inspire to students to show interest in their subjects, even if he confronts students who are completely demotivated and dispirited. Quality education

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