Course: Plan Implementation and Management (8617)
Level: B.Ed (One and Half Years)
Semester: Spring, 2022
Q.1 What is school mapping? Identify its major characteristics which help planner while doing school mapping. (20)
School mapping is a set of techniques and procedures used to estimate future education requirements at local level and work out what needs to be done to meet them.
Many reforms have been introduced in school sector by the Government of Pakistan in which the major attention was given to the management of schools. According to Mathur (2005), management depends on controlling the available resources to achieve the desired target. Even most of the managers are not aware of effective planning or have poor understanding [
The most important aspect of the planning in school sector is related to the location of the institutions. The process of location planning in education is called “School Mapping’. It involves the process of identifying the communities and places where educational facilities proposed in the PLAN are to be located. It requires systematic effort designed to locate educational facilities in such a manner that targeted age-groups of the population are able to use facilities to their maximum advantage
Q.2 Discuss various elements and factors which affect the decision making. How decision education system can be more rational.
Factors Affecting Decision-Making
Some of the factors and personal characteristics that have an impact on the decision-makers are described below. Some factors are more important at higher levels of management and others are more important at lower levels.
Programmed versus Non-programmed Decisions
Programmed decisions are made in predictable circumstances and managers have clear parameters and criteria. Problems are well structured and alternatives are well defined. The problems are solved and decisions are implemented through established policy directives, rules, and procedures.
Non-programmed decisions are the mode in unique circumstances and the results of such decisions are often unpredictable. Managers face ill-structured problems. These problems require a custom-mode response and are usually handled by the top management.
Q.3 What do you understand by communication? How do different channels of communication affect the working efficiency of an organization?
Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place, person or group to another.
Every communication involves (at least) one sender, a message and a recipient. This may sound simple, but communication is actually a very complex subject.
The transmission of the message from sender to recipient can be affected by a huge range of things. These include our emotions, the cultural situation, the medium used to communicate, and even our location. The complexity is why good communication skills are considered so desirable by employers around the world: accurate, effective and unambiguous communication is actually extremely hard.
What is communication? Communication is the sending and receiving of information and can be one-on-one or between groups of people, and can be face-to-face or through communication devices. Communication requires a sender, the person who initiates communication, to transfer their thoughts or encode a message. This message is sent to the receiver, a person who receives the message, and finally, the receiver must decode, or interpret the message. This sounds simple enough but is more complicated.
.4 Elaborate the role of management information system in control. Discuss consequence of inadequate control in an organization.
The MIS helps in strategic planning, management control, operational control and transaction processing. The MIS helps in the clerical personal in the transaction processing and answers the queries on the data pertaining to the transaction, the status of a particular record and reference on a variety of documents.
Here are some of the important roles of the MIS:
i. The MIS satisfies the diverse needs through variety of systems such as query system, analysis system, modeling system and decision support system.
ii. The MIS helps in strategic planning, management control, operational control and transaction processing. The MIS helps in the clerical personal in the transaction processing and answers the queries on the data pertaining to the transaction, the status of a particular record and reference on a variety of documents.
Q.5 Write short notes on the following:
i. Delphi Technique
What Is the Delphi Method?
The Delphi method is a forecasting process framework based on the results of multiple rounds of questionnaires sent to a panel of experts. After each round of questionnaires, the experts are presented with an aggregated summary of the last round, allowing each expert to adjust their answers according to the group response. This process combines the benefits of expert analysis with elements of the wisdom of crowds.
Understanding the Delphi Method
Several rounds of questionnaires are sent out to the group of experts, and the anonymous responses are aggregated and shared with the group after each round. The experts are allowed to adjust their answers in subsequent rounds, based on how they interpret the “group response” that has been provided to them. Since multiple rounds of questions are asked and the panel is told what the group thinks as a whole, the Delphi method seeks to reach the correct response through consensus.