AIOU Course Code 8610-2 Solved Assignment Spring 2022

B.ED (1.5 Year), (2.5 Year), (4 Year) Solved Assignments

Course: Human Development and Learning (8610)

Semester: Spring, 2022

Assignment No. 2

Q.1 Emotional development is important for children even before going to school.

Discuss emotional characteristics of preschool children.

Emotional development is a complex task that begins in infancy and continues into adulthood. The first emotions that can be recognised in babies include joy, anger, sadness and fear. As children’s sense of self develops, more complex emotions like shyness, surprise, elation, embarrassment, shame, guilt, pride and empathy emerge. School aged children and young people are still learning to identify emotions, to understand why they happen, and how to manage them appropriately. 

Emotional expression includes several components:

  • physical responses (like heart rate, breathing and hormone levels)
  • behavioural displays of emotion
  • feelings that children and young people recognise and learn to name
  • thoughts and judgments associated with feelings
  • action signals (for example, a desire to approach, escape or fight).

Influences on emotional expression include: 

Q.2 What is the role of community in moral development of a child?

Community is essential to quality outcomes of children. A community provides an important relationship environment; promotes belonging, a sense of identity and learning; supports active participation in the world and continuity of learning; and connects children and families to supportive relationship and resource networks.

Young children develop in an environment of relationships, with a child’s community providing a vital relationship context for their learning and development. This is particularly important during the early years when the foundations of brain architecture are being built. From birth, positive, responsive, consistent and secure relationships with others provide a supportive, growth-promoting environment for children’s development, wellbeing and learning. Children’s academic, social-emotional and mental health outcomes are built on this foundation.

A child’s relationship environment begins in the family, but then extends to adults and peers outside of the family who have important roles in their life. Educators and other education and care staff are a significant part of many children’s relationship environment.  Communities that foster positive interactions and relationships between children, peers and adults strengthen children’s outcomes.

Community is essential to quality outcomes of children. A community provides an important relationship environment; promotes belonging, a sense of identity and learning; supports active participation in the world and continuity of learning; and connects children and families to supportive relationship and resource networks.

When children have a sense of belonging and feel safe, secure and supported, they have the confidence to play, explore and learn. A service that is strongly connected to the people and place of its community is welcoming, inclusive, connected to the culture and context of children’s families, while nurturing respectful and reciprocal relationships with children’s families. Connection to community creates a responsive, safe and stable education and care environment which, in turn, promotes children’s belonging and learning.

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Q.3 Language needs of community to be developed. Discuss.

A speech community is a group of people who share rules for conducting and interpreting at least one variety of a language or dialect. The term can be applied to a neighborhood, a city, a region or a nation. We all belong to at least one speech community. The earliest speech community we belong to is the one we share with our primary caregivers (usually our parents) and is the basis for some of the most intimate and long term relationships we form across our life. The rules and norms of this speech community show up in a dialect referred to as the vernacular, the most basic variety or dialect of language we command. Our vernacular speech is least susceptible to monitoring and least likely to change across our lifetime.

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Q.4 Discuss general characteristics of learning.

The process of learning is continuous which starts right from the time of birth of an individual and continues till the death. We all are engaged in the learning endeavours in order to develop our adaptive capabilities as per the requirements of the changing environment. For a learning to occur, two things are important: 1. The presence of a stimulus in the environment and 2. The innate dispositions like emotional and instinctual dispositions. A person keeps on learning across all the stages of life, by constructing or reconstructing experiences under the influence of emotional and instinctual dispositions.

Psychologists in general define Learning as relatively permanent behavioural modifications which take place as a result of experience. This definition of learning stresses on three important elements of learning:

·       Learning involves a behavioural change which can be better or worse.

·       This behavioural change should take place as a result of practice and experience. Changes resulting from maturity or growth cannot be considered as learning

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