Assignment No. 2
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Total Marks: 100 Pass Marks: 50
Note: All questions carry equal marks
Q.1 What kind of curriculum Aristotle supported to be taught to the children? Discuss its features. (20)
Aristotle, embraced the Greek version of liberal arts curriculum and emphasized natural sciences, biology, botany, physiology, and zoology. He studied with Plato for 20 years at the Academy and eventually joined him and Socrates in Western education history. Aristotle was able to take Plato’s philosophical and educational ideas as a jumping off point changing them throughout his life to become his own personal philosophy. Whereas Plato believed truth was found within the mind, Aristotle looked to the world outside the mind to find evidence of what was true. Born in 384 BCE in Stageira, Chalcidice, Greece, Aristotle served as a tutor to Alexander the Great for seven years and eventually established a school in Athens known as the Lyceum. Aristotle believed the purpose of school was to develop and exercise students’ potential for reasoning, form ethical character, and provide a skill and knowledge base. He thought the purpose of schooling was to develop dispositions and habits that exercise reason and forming a human’s ethos. Schools were to prepare future citizens with more functional knowledge needed to conduct their political, social, and economic affairs
Q.2 Discuss the basic concepts of John Dewey’s philosophy of education. (20)
Q.3 Enlist educational views of Ahmed Ibn-e-Muhammad Ibn-e-Ya’qub Ibn-e-Miskawayh. (20)
Abu `Ali Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ya’qub Miskawayh (932-1030) is a brilliant intellectual and philosopher of 10th-century Buwayhid Baghdad. His effect on Islamic philosophy is mainly concerned with ethical issues. His book Tadhib al-akhlaq (Ethical Instruction) is considered as the first major Islamic work on philosophical ethics. Focusing on practical ethics, conduct, and refinement of character, it contains an original theory on the education of young boys.
Miskawayh lived in the 4th century H and its scientific environment, and his very productive life extended for around 20 years into the 5th century, as is shown by the date of his death. So he spent the whole of his life within the period of the Abbasid empire, the rule of which extended from 132 to 656 H (750-1258 CE). This period of time is well known for the Muslims’ concentration on translating the sciences from other languages, and it witnessed also a flourishing of writing in Arabic,P———————————————
Q.4 Describe the educational philosophy of Essentialists. (20)
Educational essentialism is an educational philosophy whose adherents believe that children should learn the traditional basic subjects thoroughly. In this philosophical school of thought, the aim is to instill students with the “essentials” of academic knowledge, enacting a back-to-basics approach.
Reading, Writing, Literature, Foreign Languages, History, Mathematics, Science, Art, and Music. Moreover, this traditional approach is meant to train the mind, promote reasoning, and ensure a common culture. Essentialism is an approach assuming that people and things have natural and essential common characteristics which are inherent, innate and unchanging. Thus, it is regarded as an educational philosophy. However, having the common essence and the same essentials at the same levels can lead to undesired practices in real life too. Even nouns and pronouns used in daily communication reflect some connotations of a philosophy as a system of beliefs about reality based on how we perceive ourselves and others in terms of our existence.
Q.5 How do, according to Montessori, environment and freedom of a child play a significant role in his education?
The “prepared environment” is Maria Montessori’s concept that the environment can be designed to facilitate maximum independent learning and exploration by the child. In the prepared environment, there is a variety of activity as well as a great deal of movement. A Montessori teacher serves as the preparer and communicator of the environment to the child and is responsible for maintaining the atmosphere and order of the prepared environment. A prepared environment gives every child the freedom to fully develop their unique potential through developmentally appropriate sensorial materials. The materials range from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract, catering toward every child’s age and ability.
Montessori classrooms are designed to offer lessons, activities, and tools that match the developmental needs and interests of each individual child. It is important to note that not every child will be interested in every available lesson. This is why children are allowed to choose the lessons they gravitate toward naturally.
Many parents may find themselves wondering what sets Montessori childcare apart from your average daycare center or preschool. For starters, as soon as you walk into your traditional childcare center, you will notice that is most likely lively, loud, and messy. On the other end of the spectrum, as soon as you walk into a Montessori classroom, you will notice that it is peaceful, quiet, and orderly.