Course: Foundation of Education (831)
Semester: Spring, 2022
Assignment No. 02
Q.1 Discuss the nature of objectives that were framed in different educational policies of Pakistan.
It is mandated in the Constitution of Pakistan to provide free and compulsory education to all children between the ages of 5-16 years and enhance adult literacy. With the 18th constitutional amendment the concurrent list which comprised of 47 subjects was abolished and these subjects, including education, were transferred to federating units as a move towards provincial autonomy.
The year 2015 is important in the context that it marks the deadline for the participants of Dakar declaration (Education For All [EFA] commitment) including Pakistan. Education related statistics coupled with Pakistan’s progress regarding education targets set in Vision 2030 and Pakistan’s lagging behind in achieving EFA targets and its Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) for education call for an analysis of the education system of Pakistan and to look into the issues and problems it is facing so that workable solutions could be recommended.
The system of education includes all institutions that are involved in delivering formal education (public and private, for-profit and nonprofit, onsite or virtual instruction) and their faculties, students, physical infrastructure, resources and rules. In a broader definition the system also includes the institutions that are directly involved in financing, managing, operating or regulating such institutions (like government ministries and regulatory bodies, central testing organizations, textbook boards and accreditation boards). The rules and regulations that guide the individual and institutional interactions within the set up are also part of the education system.
Q.2 Discuss the development of education in the period from 1959 to 1971 in Pakistan.
There are two systems of education in Pakistan: traditional and modern. The traditional system, which focuses on Islam, has experienced an exponential growth since the 1970s, influenced by the wave of Islamic fundamentalism from Iran. In the late 1990s, the traditional Islamic schools, called madrassahs, came increasingly under the influence of the anti-West Taliban movement in Afghanistan. The traditional schools have multiplied tenfold, for the large part training mujahideens whom the government of General Parvez Musharraf, who assumed authority in October, 1999, has lauded as freedom fighters, ready to wage a jihad (religious war) through terrorist activities against nonbelievers. While only 4,350 madrassahs are registered with the government, the actual number has been estimated at between 40,000 to 50,000. A revealing article by U.S. anti-terrorist expert Jessica Stern in Foreign Affairs (November-December 2000) has warned the world about the kind of “education” imparted by these “Schools of Hate” and their role in creating a “mindset” for jihad.
Q.3 Discuss the main trends in education. Why should we study these trends?
It is not a Practical Idea for schools to wait till 100% digitalization to give students the taste of modern education.
Integrated learning solutions are now an accepted reality in most schools. They are aiming to provide optimum digital infrastructure requirements while keeping traditional textbooks as the base.
In fact, it is unfair for a group of students to remain unaware of the benefits of digital education just because of the connectivity and infrastructure issues.
Intelligent solutions like a print textbook associated with audio-visual content for a smartboard which is linked to an online assessment structure can work wonders to improve learning outcomes.
Knowledge retention improves drastically when learning involves audio, video, and visuals which is lacking in traditional lectures.
This is one reason why schools have accepted virtual reality with both hands.
In fact, virtual reality is not only about seeing something but about experiencing the subject which helps students to learn with better understanding.
Teachers can find this as a feasible option to teach them complex concepts with comparatively a lesser time with the additional benefit of knowledge retention.
Q.4 Define modes of education. Each mode substantially contribute in the spreading of education. Discuss.
Education brings a natural and lasting change in an individual’s reasoning and ability to achieve the targeted goal. It facilitates us to investigate our own considerations and thoughts and makes it ready to express it in various shapes.
Education is the main thing that encourages us to distinguish between right and wrong because in the absence of education, we can’t do what we need or we can’t achieve our goal.
Straightforwardly, we can say, “education is the passage to progress”. It is additionally the way to our fate as achievements can only be accomplished when individuals have information, aptitudes, and frame of mind. In this way, education resembles a medium through which we can associate with various individuals and offer our thoughts.
To tackle issues and do inventiveness we first need to gain proficiency with some essential abilities. We require learning and abilities to wind up increasingly imaginative. So education is fundamentally learning of abilities and ideas that can make us increasingly innovative and issue solver. Education is to pick up the capacity to develop and take care of issues in order to achieve their lawful motives.
Q.5 Discuss the need and scope of environmental education in Pakistan
Environmental education is a process that allows individuals to explore environmental issues, engage in problem solving, and take action to improve the environment. As a result, individuals develop a deeper understanding of environmental issues and have the skills to make informed and responsible decisions. Environmental science is a good career when observing the situation of nowadays. Environmental Pollution is increasing day by day, climatic conditions also change, Global warming increases. To tackle all these issues we study environmental science and pursue our career in this subject to protect the environment. Developing a profession in environmental science provides the best development potential, with full-time income and greater prospects for R&D.
You will gain a deeper understanding of the intricate links that exist between humans and nature by learning environmental science.
Mines, fertilizer factories, the fabric and dying sector, units of food processing, and other industries hire environmental experts. You will have a wide range of job options after earning a degree in this profession.
There is no definite demarcation between the branches of study of Environmental Science, each overlaps on the scope of the other, yet to make things easier to grasp and to facilitate work upon them, the study of Environment Science has been divided into the following divisions: