AIOU Course Code 826-2 Solved Assignment Spring 2022

M.ED / MA Education Solved Assignment

Course: Elementary Education (826)

Semester: Spring, 2022

Assignment No. 02

Q.1 “Information Communication Technology has revolutionized the field of instruction. Elicit its educative value.

Information and communication technology has quickly become a key part of the infrastructure of classrooms and schools. From preschool to higher education, computers, laptops, smartphones, smart boards and tablets are powerful mediums through which to get information and communicate. In the 21st century, technology plays a role in every facet of education as students, teachers and administrators turn to their computers to access information, create and express themselves, communicate and collaborate, and track the achievement of learning outcomes.

Technology plays a central role to both students and teachers searching for information. Online reference material, such as Encyclopedia Britannica Online, offer vast amounts of content supplemented by engaging multimedia and interactive links. Ebook collections offer thousands of texts, and the sheer amount of online articles and journals devoted to every imaginable topic make research efficient and highly rewarding. Teachers looking to engage their students have access to thousands of images, diagrams, videos, maps, animation, games and a host of other options to appeal to the varied learning styles of their individual students. Today’s broad access to educational resources encourages students to inquire more and follow pathways of information according to their own interests. Information technology thus plays a key role in the development of the autonomous learner.

 

Q.2 Describe the effect of students grouping on teaching learning situation. Enlist different kinds of anxiety and aggression in students.

Usually student anxiety observed in children and teens from kindergarten to 12th grade manifests in three different forms: school refusal, test anxiety and social anxiety. These three branches of student anxiety can be caused by any number of factors and are usually a sign of a deeper anxiety disorder.

There are six major types of anxiety disorders. These include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and social anxiety disorder. Since student anxiety usually stems from one of the major disorders, it is important for teachers and schools to have a strong understanding of anxiety and how it works in order to provide effective support and resources for struggling students.

The most effective way to help students who are dealing with anxiety is to know how to address it.

Often, anxiety in students goes unnoticed and their unpredictable behavior, such as missing class, might be assumed to be lazy or irresponsible. If teachers are prepared and can identify signs that a student may have anxiety then they are able to create a safe environment for the student to seek help and necessary resources.

1. Emotional Changes

When a student is experiencing anxiety, it is common for them to constantly feel on edge and uneasy.  They may find themselves getting easily irritated by small things that wouldn’t normally bother them and can find it very difficult to concentrate.

The student may also feel restless and may act out in unexpected ways to avoid a situation they perceive as threatening. For example, a student might purposely get kicked out of class before a quiz if they have test anxiety.

 

Q.3 Differentiate between management, control and discipline. It is observed that some teachers do not have to impose discipline in their classroom. What is about their teaching that seems to keep their classes free of disciplinary problems?

Students, as well as teachers, spend a majority of their time in classrooms and in school. The classroom should, therefore, be a stress-free environment where students and teachers feel comfortable spending so much time. It is essential to have a well-managed classroom to improve classroom efficiency and create an environment conducive to learning. A well-managed classroom is not limited to discipline, unlike the popular belief that discipline is the only vital management skill a teacher must have. There are various characteristics that describe a well-managed and efficient classroom.

Student Engagement

Classroom management includes various aspects, but one of the most vital is that the students are engaged. A well-managed classroom will keep the students engaged at all times in the learning process. Students are involved in the learning process, which helps foster higher-level thinking skills in students. Teaching creatively can be a major factor in student engagement because a lesson that is not interesting will cause the students to stop listening and become distracted. A more creative teaching method will capture the student’s attention and allow them to focus.

Clear Expectations

Expectations such as class objectives are clear in a well-managed classroom. Students know the material they will be tested on, as well as the teacher’s expectations for the various assignments they will be graded on. This also allows for efficiency in the classroom because students manage their time accordingly to move from one task to another effectively. A good way to ensure that students are clear on what the class objectives are is to write the daily tasks on the board at the beginning of each lesson, as well as write any exam dates in a place that students can see regularly.

 

Q.4 Differentiate between measurement and evaluation. What is the difference between standardized tests and teacher made tests?

BASIS FOR COMPARISON

MEASUREMENT

EVALUATION

Meaning

Measurement refers to the process of delegating a numerical index, to the object in a meaningful and consistent manner.

Evaluation is when the comparison is being made between the score of a learner with the score of other learners and judge the results.

Observations

Comprises the observations which can be expressed numerically.

Comprises of both quantitative and qualitative observations.

Involves

Assignment of numerals according to certain rules.

Assignment of grades, level or symbols according to established standards.

Concerned with

One or more attributes or features of a person or object.

Physical, psychological and behavioral aspects of a person.

Answers

How much

How good or how well

Logical assumption

It does not convey any logical assumption about the student.

Logical assumption can be made, about the student.

Time and Energy

Requires less time and energy

Requires more time and energy

 

Q.5 Discuss the initiative taken by the government for universalization of primary education. How can public and private sector contribute to achieve this target?

Education plays a pivotal role in the rise and fall of the nations especially in the 21st century importance of education influence much to meet the fast growing challenges. It is mainly due to the emergence of global competition in education and technology. This competitive environment is the core need for progress of any country. All countries including Pakistan have different school systems but when we divide them we find two major categories of school systems: private and public schools. In Pakistan, private schools are getting mass acceptance today to ensure sustained progress of the country.

During 1990s and 2000s, private sector emerged as a key provider of education services in Pakistan both in absolute terms and relative to the public sector. Private educational institutions are playing key role not only in eradicating illiteracy but also enhancing the level of students as well as teachers by providing better academic environment. Private sector contributed significantly in eradicating illiteracy in the emerging economies. If private schools are properly managed they can uplift educational standard in Pakistan as well.
The educational landscape of Pakistan has gone through numerous transformations in the past two decades. Enrollment levels and gender parity index have been on the rise. The changes in the education sector that have been taking place in Pakistan have created an environment with numerous opportunities as well as challenges in terms of policy development. Even though the enrollment in government schools is much bigger than any other sector, the declining trend in favor of non –state providers is significant.
Education, especially primary education is mostly considered a public service which should be provided to the citizens without discrimination, irrespective of affordability and mainly as the government’s responsibility. This ideology was behind the nationalization of all education institutions in 1972, which severely interrupted the role of the robust private sector particularly at the post elementary level. However, like other services provided by the government, education provision has been severely constrained by governance, quality and effectiveness.

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