Course: Foundations of Education (6500)
Semester: Spring, 2022
. Assignment no 2
Q1 Define “Reconstructionism”. Explain its main factors as an emerging movement in philosophy.
The Reconstructionist education movement is a continuation of the progressivism movement. It is one of the last emerging trends. The philosophy on which the current is based is “pragmatism”. John Dewey, Isaac Bergson, T. Brameld are representatives.
The economic crisis, social depressions and technological developments in the United States, which have become threatening to human existence, have led to the understanding of progressivism as aimless or unable to function, and as a reaction to it, it has prepared the formation of the re-constructionist movement.
According to reconstructionism, in order to keep up with the constantly existing developments and changes, a new one should be built instead of the old and destroyed values by making a choice in the struggle for existence.Although the common goal of all thoughts is the happiness of humanity, there is a conflict between these thoughts on the ways to be followed and adhered to in reaching the goal. Especially in the philosophy of the state and society, the theological and political ideas that are very different from each other and working on what kind of administration and who should govern the state. available.
Q.2 Analyse the role of family, religion, school and teacher in the social development of an individual.
The concept of social development lies in the concept of socialization. It involves learning the values, knowledge, and skills that enable children to relate to others effectively and to contribute in positive ways to family, school and the community. To understand that, we have to understand socialization at the time of his birth, a child is very selfish.Social scientific notions of the disappearance or vestigialization of religion and family are deeply rooted in our theoretical conceptions of the social processes that created the modern world and that now are transforming that modernity into postindustrial, postmodern society. Theories of modernization envision social change as entailing the rationalization of all spheres of existence. In a statement characterizing the classic modernization approach, Moore (1963, p. 79) says, “A major feature of the modern world . . . is that the rational orientation is pervasive and a major basis for deliberate change in virtually every aspect of man’s concerns.” There is little room for the seemingly irrational and unscientific impulses of religion, primary emotions, and familial concerns.
With this approach, the secularization of religion is a given. Moore (1963, p. 80) states, “Even with regard to the role of religion in human affairs, the ‘rational spirit’ takes the form of secularization, the substitution of nonreligious beliefs and practices for religious ones.” Though religion survives, it addresses “personal misfortune and bereavement” above all else in modern society (Moore 1963, p. 104).
Q.3 What are the psychological consideration for the teacher and the taught in the education system? Elaborate in the light of teaching strategies and learning experiences.
Importance of Educational Psychology for Teachers
Teacher is like a philosopher who guides his student. He is responsible to be aware about growth and development of the students. It is educational psychology which enables the teacher to use various techniques. The importance of educational psychology and teachers has the following points:
Educational Psychology helps teacher to know that how learning takes place.
It enables a teacher that how learning process should be initiated, how to motivate, how to memorize or learn.
It helps teachers to guide the students in right direction in order to canalized student’s abilities in right direction.
It informs a teacher, about the nature of the learners and his potentialities.
It helps a teacher to develop a student personality because the whole educational process is for student’s personality development.
It helps a teacher to adjust his methodologies of learning to the nature / demand of the learner.
It enables a teacher to know the problems of individual differences and treat every student on his / her merit.
Q.4 Discuss the concept of economics of education. What are the model of financial decision making and how financing is done is education?
In the 1999 through 2000 school year, spending for all levels of education amounted to $646.8 billion. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, of this total, $389 billion was spent for K–12 education and the remaining $257.8 billion was expended by postsecondary institutions. Despite the substantial financial commitment to education, the impact of economics on the way educational institutions allocate and use their resources has been remarkably limited. Economics is concerned with obtaining the best possible outcome from a limited budget, and thus seems an ideal approach for dealing with how to allocate resources within schools. Although economists are beginning to analyze educational problems in increasing numbers, they have yet to make major inroads in improving educational productivity. This article describes ways in which economic analysis could be used to improve decision-making in educational institutions, and to inform the allocation and use of educational resources.
Q5 Elaborate the procedure of scientific mothod, the steps involved and its limitations,
scientists follow the scientific method exactly? No. Some areas of science can be more easily tested than others. For example, scientists studying how stars change as they age or how dinosaurs digested their food cannot fast-forward a star’s life by a million years or run medical exams on feeding dinosaurs to test their hypotheses. When direct experimentation is not possible, scientists modify the scientific method. But even when modified, the goal (and many of the steps) remains the same: to discover cause and effect relationships by asking questions, carefully gathering and examining the evidence, and seeing if all the available information can be combined into a logical answer. New information or thinking might also cause a scientist to back up and repeat steps at any point during the process. Understanding the steps of the scientific method will help you focus your scientific question and work through your observations and data to answer the question as well as possible.
The interactive diagram below may help you understand the scientific method and how it is applied to an experiment. You can click on parts of the diagram to learn more. Use the “return to top” button depiction of the return to top button to return to the diagram for more exploration.