ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q.1 What is the difference between cognition and metacognition? Discuss in detail the elements of metacognition.
Since the study of cognition and metacognition is an interesting topic in a number of disciplines, one can have an interest to find out the difference between cognition and metacognition. However, for most people these two are very confusing. This is because the line of demarcation between the cognition and metacognition is often difficult to identify since these two tend to overlap. Basically, cognition deals with mental processes such as memory, learning, problem-solving, attention and decision making. However, the metacognition deals with an individual’s higher order cognitive processes , where a person has active control over his cognition. The aim of this article is to present a basic understanding of cognition and metacognition while emphasizing the difference between cognition and metacognition.
Cognition can simply be defined as all mental processes and abilities in which people engage on a daily basis such as memory, learning, problem-solving, evaluation, reasoning and decision making. Cognition helps to generate new knowledge through mental processes and also helps to use the knowledge that people have in daily life. Educational psychologists were especially interested in studying the cognitive processes of individuals through the growth and development of children. Jean Piaget is specifically important in this sphere since he presented stages of cognitive development of children from the birth to adulthood. They are sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years), pre-operational stage (2 -7 years), concrete operational stage (7 – 11 years), and finally formal operational stage (adolescence – adulthood). Metacognition is often defined as thinking about thinking. It allows us to complete a given task well through planning, monitoring, evaluating and comprehending. This means while cognitive processes allow normal functioning of individuals, metacognition takes it a level higher making a person more aware of his/her cognitive processes. For example, imagine a child who is completing a mathematical question. The cognitive process would allow the child to complete the task. However, the metacognition would double check through monitoring and evaluating the answer. In this sense, metacognition helps to verify and build the confidence of the child. This is why it can be said that metacognition helps successful learning.
Audio visual aids ought to encourage learners by overcoming the educational. They must promote the learning of most scholars.
Audio-Visual Aids: Classification
Audio visual aids classification is based on the idea of sensory experience; relatives derive learning, chiefly through direct sensory contact. Keeping this seeable, these are often classified into three main groups:
Audio Aids: These embody Radio, Tape-recorder, Audio electronic equipment, Language laboratory, etc.
Visual Aids: It includes charts, Black and Whiteboard, Maps, Pictures, Models, textbooks, a projector, Transparency, Flash-cards, Print materials, etc.
Audio-Visual Aids: Includes LCD projector, projector, TV, Computer, VCD player, Virtual schoolroom, Multimedia, etc.
Audio-Visual Aids: Advantages
To Challenge the Attention of the Pupils
The teacher who uses devices can usually see that the attention of the whole classroom is on the lesson and that they should not be distracted.
To Stimulate Imagination and Develop the Mental Imagery
Devices stimulate and increase the imagination of the pupils. Intellectual imagery can be used as a vehicle of thought and as a means of clarifying ideas and concepts. As imagination plays a vital role in any innovation and any learning, almost all the innovations are in the form of imagination, and they evolved to be theories and principles.
To Facilitate the Understanding of the Pupils
The most widely acknowledged use of aids, whether visual or audio-visual, is useful in aiding understanding. As we learn everything and anything after understanding otherwise, there can be any learning without understanding. Language learning can be acquired by using models, filmstrips, movies, and pictorial material to supplement textbooks and printed materials. Material devices give significance, importance, colour and imagery body to the idea presented by the instructor.
To Provide Incentives for Action
The use of devices in education, such as pictures and objects, will arouse emotion and incite the individual to act or learn. The teacher must select the right kind of device to excite the students to a worthwhile intellectual activity during the class.
To Develop the Ability to Listen
The ability to listen can be developed best through the use of audio-visual materials. It is also the responsibility of the schools, colleges, and other educational institutions, to provide training for our students to be good listeners first.
Audio-Visual Aids: Disadvantages
- Technical Problems
- Student distraction
Audio visuals aids play a vital role in the retention of the topic matter or a protracted amount of your time. Most of the topics within the numerous subjects are often coated by audio-visual aids. This is the explanation that electronic equipment day category space is shifted from black boards to good boards and projectors. It’s a production variety of communication using sound and lightweight effects. Not all folks are visual or sense modality learners, the mixture of sunshine and sound promotes and reinforces this retention and permits the audience to hook up with the complete message.
Q.3 As an elementary teacher, how will you integrate technology in your classroom teaching? What tools, technology and techniques will you use to make your teaching more interactive for elementary students?
When technology integration in the classroom is seamless and thoughtful, students not only become more engaged, they begin to take more control over their own learning, too. Effective tech integration changes classroom dynamics, encouraging student-centered project-based learning. The first step in successful tech integration is recognizing the change that may need to happen inside of yourself and in your approach to teaching. When any teacher brings technology into the classroom, he or she will no longer be the center of attention. The level of refocused attention will, of course, depend on the amount and the type of technology (e.g., mobile device, e-reader, laptop, interactive whiteboard) being brought into the classroom. However, this does not mean that the teacher is no longer essential to the learning process. While students may be surrounded by technology at home, it is dangerous to assume that they know how to use it for learning — this is commonly referred to as the “myth of the digital native,” and you can read more about it in this Edutopia blog post: “Digital Native vs. Digital Citizen? Examining a Dangerous Stereotype.” Most students still need a guide to help them use digital tools effectively for learning and collaboration.
Integrating Technology Across the Access Spectrum
As discussed in the What is Successful Technology Integration? section, how we define “technology integration” depends on the kinds of technology available and how much access one has to technology. This definition also depends on who is using the technology. For instance, in a classroom with only an interactive whiteboard and one computer, learning will still remain teacher centered and integration will revolve around teacher needs, which are not necessarily student needs. Still, there are ways to use an interactive whiteboard to make it a tool for your students. Even with one computer in the room, there are ways to integrate that one machine into your classroom and still make sure that you and your students are indeed doing things that you couldn’t do before, not just doing the same things you did before in a quicker, more efficient way.
Q.4 Critically analyze the approaches of lesson planning in the light of different philosophies.
Philosophy is at the heart of curriculum development. It helps educators in formulating beliefs, arguments, and assumptions and in making value judgments. Philosophy develops a broad outlook, and it also helps in answering what schools are for, what subjects are important, how students should learn, and what materials and methods should be used. Philosophy provides the starting point . . . in decision making about education in its totality (Ogwara, et. al, 2013). According to Doll (1992: 28), philosophy has the multifaceted effect of helping us to:
- indicate in general what we mean,
- make what we mean more specific and definite, and
- develop what we mean into a useful construct.
Thus, philosophy is a crucial determinant of curriculum trends and the curriculum development process by helping clarify our thought process. And, because philosophy is a process of the mind, there are a variety of philosophical thoughts that need consideration.
To start with, there are two broad categories of philosophy: the traditional and modern philosophies. In each of those categories, there are major philosophies such as idealism, realism, pragmatism, and existentialism, as well as educational philosophies arising from those major philosophies. These include perennialism and essentialism in the traditional category, while progressivism and reconstructionism fall under the modern philosophies.
Idealism is considered one of the oldest philosophical systems, whose main proponent was the Greek philosopher, Plato. Idealism advocates that ideas constitute what is real and permanent, i.e. ideas are the only true reality. Idealism also emphasizes the spiritual component of man, i.e., man is a spiritual being.
According to this philosophy, education is the process of development of a person, his/her conscious and spiritual self. The ultimate responsibility for learning rests with learners. The school exists to develop character, increase knowledge, and cultivate aesthetic taste. The teacher is expected to be a model, friend, and guide to the learners.
The realist’s school of thought is traced back to Aristotle, another main, Greek philosopher. According to this philosophy, matter or objects that we see exist by themselves, i.e., they exist absolutely with or without man. In other words, matter is not a construct of the human mind.
Q.5 Today how much educational technology has progressed for its utilization in the classroom? Discuss the historical background of educational technology in the light of its emergence.
Technology has impacted almost every aspect of life today, and education is no exception.In some ways, education seems much the same as it has been for many years. A 14th century illustration by Laurentius de Voltolina depicts a university lecture in medieval Italy. The scene is easily recognizable because of its parallels to the modern day. The teacher lectures from a podium at the front of the room while the students sit in rows and listen. Some of the students have books open in front of them and appear to be following along. A few look bored. Some are talking to their neighbors. One appears to be sleeping. Classrooms today do not look much different, though you might find modern students looking at their laptops, tablets, or smart phones instead of books (though probably open to Facebook). A cynic would say that technology has done nothing to change education.
However, in many ways, technology has profoundly changed education. For one, technology has greatly expanded access to education. In medieval times, books were rare and only an elite few had access to educational opportunities. Individuals had to travel to centers of learning to get an education. Today, massive amounts of information (books, audio, images, videos) are available at one’s fingertips through the Internet, and opportunities for formal learning are available online worldwide through the Khan Academy, MOOCs, podcasts, traditional online degree programs, and more. Access to learning opportunities today is unprecedented in scope thanks to technology.
Opportunities for communication and collaboration have also been expanded by technology. Traditionally, classrooms have been relatively isolated, and collaboration has been limited to other students in the same classroom or building. Today, technology enables forms of communication and collaboration undreamt of in the past. Students in a classroom in the rural U.S., for example, can learn about the Arctic by following the expedition of a team of scientists in the region, read scientists’ blog posting, view photos, e-mail questions to the scientists, and even talk live with the scientists via a videoconference. Students can share what they are learning with students in other classrooms in other states who are tracking the same expedition. Students can collaborate on group projects using technology-based tools such as wikis and Google docs. The walls of the classrooms are no longer a barrier as technology enables new ways of learning, communicating, and working collaboratively.
Technology has also begun to change the roles of teachers and learners. In the traditional classroom, such as wh