AIOU Course Code 4685-2 Solved Assignments Spring 2022

Course: Sociology of Gender Issues (4685)

Level: Postgraduate

Semester: Spring, 2022

Assignment no 2

Q.1 What are the rights of women as per teaching of Islam? Discuss with respect to the prevailing situation in Pakistan.

Undoubtedly, there is no discrepancy in Islam between men and women as far as their relationship to Allah in concerning as both are promised the same reward for good conduct and the same punishment for evil conduct. Allah says:

“And for women are rights over men similar to those of men over women.” (2: 228)

The holy Quran, in addressing the believers, often uses the expression “believing men and women” to accentuate the equality of both male and female in regard to their particular duties, rights, virtues and merits. Islam is such a religion which has first given to the women a place of dignity and honour because before the advent of Islam, there were huge discriminations towards women. Islam abolished inhumanity, inequality, discrimination towards women as well as gave a complete code of conduct for both male and female. Prior to the arrival of Islam, the pagan Arabs used to bury their female children alive, make women dance naked in the vicinity of Ka’ba during their annual fairs and treated women just like slaves or chattels and they used women only for their sexual contentment who possess no rights, dignity, honour or position (Doi, 1992). Unlike other religions, which regarded women as being possessed of inherent sin and wickedness and men are being possessed of inherent virtue and nobility, Islam treats men and women as being of the equal essence created from one soul. Allah says:




Q.2 Do women and men speak different languages? Explain the phenomenon of sexism in language. Give examples from Pakistani society.

When you look around, you might notice that, for the most part, masculinity and femininity are represented in a number of different ways. From the way people dress, to how they wear their hair, all of these choices are sending a message about their own relationship to the social construct of gender, or how a person identifies themselves in relation to the categories of man and woman. Gender is so tied to how we express ourselves that it can even impact the words we use every day! This may come as a surprise. At first, gender might seem irrelevant to language. However, researchers have repeatedly demonstrated a strong relationship between gender and how language is acquired, developed, and used. Gender seems to have an impact on language development even in very different historical and cultural contexts.






Q.3 Discuss identification theory of Sigmund Freud in detail.


According to Freud, as children develop, there comes a time in which the child must adopt the characteristics of one of the parents. During this process of identification, the child adopts the characteristics of the same-sex parent and begins to associate themselves with and copy the behavior of significant others. In addition, Freud stated that this process also involves the development of the child’s superego (our moral guide in life – the moral component of personality) which is done by incorporating characteristics of the parents superegos into the child’s own. So, a young male child will begin to take on characteristics of the father (act more like his father than his mother in the sense of being a male) and will develop a superego that has similarities to the moral values and guidelines by which the parents live their lives (e.g., if the parents are honest people, the child may come to realize that honesty is important and that lying is wrong).



Q.4 What are the core assumptions of Bandura’s social learning theory? Explain.

Albert Bandura, born in 1925 in Alberta, Canada, became interested in psychology while studying biological sciences at the University of British Columbia (Nabavi, 2012). Graduating with a degree in psychology, Bandura continued his studies and in 1952 was awarded a PhD in Clinical Psychology from the University of Iowa. He was elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1974 and awarded the Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology in 2004 (Nabavi, 2012). In the 1960s, Bandura became known for his social learning theory (SLT). His approach recognized reinforcement and the importance of observing, modeling, and imitating the emotional reactions, attitudes, and behaviors of others in learning (Bandura, 1977a).


In 1986, the SLT developed into the social cognitive theory, incorporating the idea that learning takes place in a social context, “with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction of the person, environment, and behavior,” and a cognitive context that considers past experiences that shape engagement in behavior (LaMorte, 2019). Because of his continuing research, Bandura became known among academics as the father of cognitive theory (Nabavi, 2012).—————=======================================================

Q.5 Write note on gender, media and Communication.

Gender and communication is an area of study in the communication discipline in which the focus is on how verbal and nonverbal communication affect and are affected by gender. A common misconception about gender and communication is that it is the study of differences in the way men and women communicate. Of course, some research has focused on those differences; however, the definition in this entry is broader and more encompassing. To best understand the definition of gender and communication, it is important to distinguish between the terms sex, gender, and sexuality. These terms are often used interchangeably; however, there is a distinct difference. Sex refers to biology—how one is born: male, female, or intersex. Gender is socially constructed; that is, communication practices,


The importance of gender in Western culture is illustrated throughout almost all forms of popular communication. From nursery rhymes that provide children with lessons on what boys and girls are made of, to bestsellers that claim that men and women are from different planets, media images are thought to reflect and



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