Course: Basics of ICT (1431)
Semester: Spring, 2022
Level: BA/Associate Degree (AD)
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Question no 01 .
Answer the following questions properly:
(a) What is meant by ICT?
Diverse set of technological tools and resources used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information. These technological tools and resources include computers, the Internet (websites, blogs and emails), live broadcasting technologies (radio, television and webcasting), recorded broadcasting technologies (podcasting, audio and video players and storage devices) and telephony (fixed or mobile, satellite, visio/video-conferencing, etc.).Introducing ICT into education is the answer for those who ask; ‘ how can we increase the reach of our institution, to a larger number of students?.’
The Mobile learning (m ‐learning) as a form of e ‐learning is a rising trend where the education has outgrown the physical constraints of the classrooms and acquired mobility. Students access information whenever and wherever they want, and institutions that provides such advanced technological terrains is rising in number day by day.
- Various devices/technology in ICT includes:
- Access of course materials through remote devices,
- Online digital repositories for lectures, course materials, and digital library,
- Online/ cloud based academic management systems,
- Employing the flipped classroom concept,
Making use of handheld computers, tablet computers, audio players, projector devices etc.
Also, the rising number of Massive Open Online Courses(MOOCs) like the coursera, khan academy, and edx tells us that there is a huge demand for off-the-classroom learning facilities. The future of our institutions will depend on whether or not they can satisfy those needs.
EXAMPLE OF USE
We reaffirm that the most effective policy to integrate ICT in education is through whole school-based planning, teacher training and professional development. We highlight that the challenge is not only to develop ICT competency standards for teachers and prepare teachers to integrate ICT in their pedagogy, but also to offer continuous support and to provide them with the incentives and the professional motivation to unlock ICT to enhance the quality of learning. To incentivize teachers, governments and institutions are recommended to integrate the evaluation of the use of ICT by institutions and teachers into the systems and practices for monitoring the quality of learning. (2017 Qindago Statement.
- Differentiate between “ICT” and “Telecommunication”.
Difference Between ICT And Telecommunications?
ICT refers to Information and Communication Technology. So, it’s quite evident from its definition that ICT is something related to sharing of information through technological means. Moreover, it’s also clear from the definition that ICT deals with communication aspects as well.
Information sharing and communication handling through technological mediums are basically the core dimensions of ICT. This is what the construct of ICT looks like.
Now, let’s explore what the telecommunication is and propose an argument on these reasonings that whether they’ve any correlation or not. Basically, the telecommunication is the transmission of signals carrying information through wired or wireless modes of mediums. This includes cables, satellites, antennas, telephones, etc
ICT deals with information and communication through technology while the telecommunication deals with transmission of signals containing information through different mediums. Telecommunication also uses technological grounds to operate and function.
So, what is the difference between ICT and telecommunications? Are they interlinked? Yes! We firmly believe that they have a strong correlation in between them and technology is the source of support of both these fields.
What is the difference between memory and hard disk? Explain it with the help of proper examples.
. Memory :
Memories are made up of registers. Memory refers to the location of short-term data. Each register in the memory is one storage location. Storage location is also called as memory location. Memory locations are identified using Address. The total number of bit a memory can store is its capacity. Memory are of three type : Primary Memory, Secondary Memory, Cache Memory.
- Hard Disk :
Hard Disk is the magnetic disk made of aluminium. It is used as main storage device on the computer. It uses metallic disk which is known as platter. Both sides of disk is used for storing data except the upper side of the uppermost disk and lower side of the lowermost disk. Magnetic oxide is used to coat the data storing surface.
MEMORY. HARD DISK
|It is an electronic component that is capable of storing data and information||It is magnetic disk made of aluminium and used as main storage device of computer.|
|It needs a continuous power supply to hold the data.||It doesn’t need a power supply to retain the data.|
|It is temporary data storage||It is permanent data storage.|
|It stores data at low speed.||It stores data at high speed.|
|There size are not much larger and goes upto GBs.||There size are much larger than memory and goes upto TBs.|
|It is used when data is stored for short time.||It is used when data is stored for long term.|
|It is portable easily.||It is not portable easily.|
|It stores data on a memory stick in the form of electric formats.||It stores data on a hard disk in the form of magnetic memory|
|It is not costly as compared to hard disk||It is costly.|
|It retrieves data at relatively low speed.||It retrieves data at high speed.|
Question no 3.
What is the purpose of scanner? Also describe BCR &MICR with suitable examples.
Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition) is also character scanning technology but it utilizes a magnetic ink and special characters. In order to scan a MICR document, it is subjected to a special scanner that magnetizes the special ink and then converts the magnetic information into characters. The banking systems uses this technology for swift processing of large volumes of cheques.
The banks that employ MICR implement it on to cheques. These cheques contain bank’s identification code, cheque number and account number which are previously printed on it by a unique magnetic ink that contains the particles of iron oxide. The advantage of using magnetic printing is that it helps in reading the characters with ease, even if there exist overwriting or marks. Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition technology is used by the banking industry for faster processing of the large volume of cheques. This technology also ensures accuracy of data entry, because most of the information is pre-printed on the cheque and is directly fed to the computer. Magnetic ink character reader is a device used in the technology.
The full form of MICR is Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. It is a system that is used for the recognition of characters with the help of a special ink as well as characters or in other words. It can be understood as a technology that is used to verify the originality and authenticity of physical documents (especially cheque) and is mostly used by banking institutions.
MICR Technique Works
MICR helps in encoding the numbers mentioned in magnetic ink displayed on the base of a cheque. MICR technique works by passing a physical document such as a cheque containing magnetic ink that needs to be read with a machine that can magnetize the ink on that document and then translate its magnetic information into characters. A laser printer is used for printing the magnetic ink, and this is not a regular printer. The laser printer used for MICR accepts Magnetic Ink and Character Recognition toner.
Magnetic Ink and Character Recognition is mandatory to be used to file various sorts of financial transaction forms like SIP form, investment form, or even for transferring funds. MICR must also be used to ensure the authenticity and originality of physical documents like cheques. MICR must also be used to eliminate the possibilities of human errors and initiate quicker transactions that are impossible to achieve in manual processing. MICR provides a higher security level, which eliminates the slightest probability of the documents getting forged. Banking institutions use MICR to verify the validity and enhance the security of authorized cheques.
Bar Code Reader (BCR)
A bar code is a machine-readable code in the form of a pattern of parallel vertical lines. They are commonly used for labeling goods that are available in supermarkets, numbering books in libraries, etc. These codes/strips are sensed and read by a photoelectric device called bar code reader that reads the code by means of reflective light. The information recorded in a bar code reader is fed into the computer, which recognizes the information from the thickness and spacing of bars.
Bar code reader (BCR)
This device reads bar codes and converts them into electrical pulses to be processed by a computer. A bar code is nothing but data coded in form of light and dark bars.
Voice Input Systems
This devices converts spoken words to M/C language. A microphone is used to convert human speech into electric signals. The signal pattern is then transmitted to a computer when it is compared to a dictionary of patterns that have been previously placed in a storage unit of computer. When a close match is found, the word is recognized.
It converts graphics directly into digital form. It looks like an ordinary camera, but no film is used therein, instead a CCD (changed coupled divide) electronic chip is used.
When light falls on the chip through the lens, it converts light waves into electrical waves.
Explain the function of ATM machine and also describe Voice Reproduction system with the help of proper examples.
An ATM, which stands for automated teller machine, is a specialized computer that makes it convenient to manage a bank account holder’s funds. It allows a person to check account balances, withdraw or deposit money, print a statement of account activities or transactions, and even purchase stamps.
ATMs were first used in London in 1967, and after 50 years, these machines can be found nationwide. ATMs can be on-premise or off-premise. On-premise ATMs are located in financial institutions. Clients enjoy more choice, convenience and availability, while banks can boost their revenue from transactions, lessen operational costs and maximize staff resources.
Off-premise ATMs are typically found in places such as airports, grocery and convenience stores and shopping centers where there is a simple need for cash.
ATMs are simple data terminals with four output and two input devices. They have to connect to a host processor and communicate through it. The host processor works like an Internet Service Provider (ISP), a portal through which all the various networks of ATMs become accessible to the bank account holder with either a credit card or debit card.
An account holder can use an ATM to carry out a number of transactions.
Withdrawals are the most common transaction among ATM cardholders. This allows them to withdraw cash from their accounts. For a withdrawal, account holders just have to key in the amount they wish to take out.
ATM deposits also are becoming popular. Account holders can deposit money and checks if their bank allows it.
Balance inquiries allow account holders to view their current account balance. This feature may be helpful if account holders need to know the amount of money they can spend with their debit card or credit card.
Transfers and payments are also available depending on the bank. This allows account holders to move money from one account to another, without withdrawing cash.
Account holders using an ATM not affiliated with their bank will most likely have to pay a fee. ATMs always disclose these fees on their screens, and they give users an option to cancel the transaction if they do not want to pay the fee.
In the U.S., the average fee for a single ATM withdrawal is about $4.52. This fee usually varies from state to state. Atlanta usually has the highest average fees at about $5.15, while Seattle has the lowest average ATM fees at $4.21.
Users should be aware of the threats that target these machines. For safety reasons, users should transact at ATMs located in well-lit public places.
The input devices like card reader and keypad.
The card reader is an input device that reads data from a card. The card reader is part of the identification of your particular account number and the magnetic strip on the backside of the ATM card is used for connection with the card reader. The card is swiped or pressed on the card reader which captures your account information i.e. the data from the card is passed on to the host processor (server). The host processor thus uses this data to get the information from the cardholders.
The card is recognized after the machine asks for further details like your identification number, withdrawal, and your balance inquiry Each card has a unique PIN so that there is little chance for some else to withdraw money from your account. There are separate laws to protect the PIN code while sending it to the host processor. The PIN is mostly sent in encrypted form. The keyboard contains 48 keys and is interfaced to the processor.
The output devices are speaker, display screen, receipt printer, and cash depositor.
The speaker provides audio feedback when a particular key is pressed.
The display screen displays the transaction information. Each step of withdrawal is shown by the display screen. A CRT screen or LCD screen is used by most of the ATMs.
The receipt printer prints all the details recording your withdrawal, date and time, and the amount of withdrawal and also shows the balance of your account in the receipt.
The cash dispenser is the heart of the ATM. This is a central system of the ATM from where the required money is obtained. From this portion, the user can collect the money. The cash dispenser must count each bill and give the required amount. If in some cases the money is folded, it will be moved to another section and becomes the reject bit. All these actions are carried out by high precision sensors. A complete record of each transaction is kept by the ATM with the help of an RTC device.
However, several different ATM technologies have not yet reached worldwide acceptance, such as:
Videoconferencing with human tellers, known as video tellers.
Biometrics, where authorization of transactions is based on the scanning of a customer’s fingerprint, iris, face, etc.
Cheque/cash Acceptance, where the machine accepts and recognises cheques and/or currency without using envelopes] Expected to grow in importance in the US through Check 21 legislation.
Bar code scanning.
- On-demand printing of “items of value” (such as movie tickets, traveler’s cheques, etc.)
- Dispensing additional media (such as phone cards)
- Co-ordination of ATMs with mobile phones.
- Integration with non-banking equipment.
- Games and promotional features.
CRM through the ATM
Videoconferencing teller machines are currently referred to as Interactive Teller Machines. Benton Smith, in the Idaho Business Review writes “The software that allows interactive teller machines to function was created by a Salt Lake City-based company called uGenius, a producer of video banking software. NCR, a leading manufacturer of ATMs, acquired uGenius in 2013 and married its own ATM hardware with uGenius’ video software.
ATMs were originally developed as cash dispensers, and have evolved to provide many other bank-related functions:
Paying routine bills, fees, and taxes (utilities, phone bills, social security, legal fees, income taxes, etc.)
- Printing or ordering bank statements
- Updating passbooks
- Cash advances
- Cheque Processing Module
Paying (in full or partially) the credit balance on a card linked to a specific current account.
Transferring money between linked accounts (such as transferring between accounts)
Deposit currency recognition, acceptance, and recycling.
In some countries, especially those which benefit from a fully integrated cross-bank network (e.g.: Multibanco in Portugal), ATMs include many functions that are not directly related to the management of one’s own bank account, such as:
Loading monetary value into stored-value cards
Adding pre-paid cell phone / mobile phone credit.
- Concert tickets
- Lottery tickets
- Movie tickets
- Postage stamps.
- Train tickets
- Shopping mall gift certificates.
Question no 5 .
Write short notes on the following topics:
- ICT Applications
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is a broader term for Information Technology (IT), which refers to all communication technologies, including the
- cell phones
social networking, and other media applications and services enabling users to access, retrieve, store, transmit, and manipulate information in a digital form.
ICTs are also used to refer to the convergence of media technology such as audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks, by means of a unified system of cabling (including signal distribution and management) or link system. However, there is no universally accepted definition of ICTs considering that the concepts, methods and tools involved in ICTs are steadily evolving on an almost daily basis. To define professional skill levels for its ICT professional education products, the IEEE Computer Society has adopted, for example, the Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA). The value of ICT strategies as a means of bridging the digital divide and as a powerful tool for economic and social development around the world should not be underestimated in agricultural and related sectors. Improving extension of ICT services to farmers would effectively improve the transmission of global open data for agriculture and nutrition for development of sensible solutions addressing food security, nutrition and sustainable agriculture issues. By using ICTs, there have already “been diverse types of innovations taking place in the agriculture sector, which include commodity and stock market price information and analysis, meteorological data collection, advisory services to farmers for agricultural extension, early warning systems for disaster prevention and control, financial services, traceability of agricultural products, agricultural statistical data gathering, etc.” (ICT for sustainable agriculture, FAO, 2013).
- Types of Monitors
A monitor is an electronic output device that is also known as a video display terminal (VDT) or a video display unit (VDU). It is used to display images, text, video, and graphics information generated by a connected computer via a computer’s video card. Although it is almost like a TV, its resolution is much higher than a TV. The first computer monitor was introduced on 1 March 1973, which was part of the Xerox Alto computer system. Older monitors were built by using a fluorescent screen and Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), which made them heavy and large in size and thus causing them to cover more space on the desk. Nowadays, all monitors are made up by using flat-panel display technology, commonly backlit with LEDs. These modern monitors take less space on the desk as compared to older CRT displays.
Types of Monitors
There are several types of monitors; some are as follows:
- Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Monitors
It is a technology used in early monitors. It uses a beam of electrons to create an image on the screen. It comprises the guns that fire a beam of electrons inside the screen. The electron beams repeatedly hit the surface of the screen. These guns are responsible for generating RGB (Red, Green, Blue) colors, and more other colors can be generated with the help of combining these three colors. Today’s Flat Panel Monitors replace the CRT monitors.
- Flat Panel Monitors
These types of monitors are lightweight and take less space. They consume less power as compared to CRT monitors. These monitors are more effective as they do not provide harmful radiation. These monitors are more expensive than CRTs. The flat-panel monitors are used in PDA, notebook computers, and cellular phones. These monitors are available in various sizes like 15″, 17″, 18″ & 19″ and more. The display of a flat-panel monitor is made with the help of two plates of glass. These plates contain a substance, which is activated in many ways.
- Touch Screen Monitors
These monitors are also known as an input device. It enables users to interact with the computer by using a finger or stylus instead of using a mouse or keyboard. When users touch the screen by their finger, it occurs an event and forward it to the controller for processing. These types of screens include pictures or words that help users to interact with the computer. It takes input from the users by touching menus or icons presented on the screen.
- LED Monitors
It is a flat screen computer monitor, which stands for light-emitting diode display. It is lightweight in terms of weight and has a short depth. As the source of light, it uses a panel of LEDs. Nowadays, a wide number of electronic devices, both large and small devices such as laptop screens, mobile phones, TVs, computer monitors, tablets, and more, use LED displays.It is believed that James P. Mitchell invented the first LED display. On 18 March 1978, the first prototype of an LED display was published to the market at the SEF (Science and Engineering Fair) in Iowa. On 8 May 1978, it was shown again in Anaheim California, at the SEF. This prototype received awards from NASA and General Motors.
- OLED Monitors
It is a new flat light-emitting display technology, which is more efficient, brighter, thinner, and better refresh rates feature and contrast as compared to the LCD display. It is made up of locating a series of organic thin films between two conductors. These displays do not need a backlight as they are emissive displays. Furthermore, it provides better image quality ever and used in tablets and high-end smartphones.Nowadays, it is widely used in laptops, TVs, mobile phones, digital cameras, tablets, VR headsets. The demand for mobile phone vendors, more than 500 million AMOLED screens were produced in 2018. The Samsung display is the main producer of the AMOLED screen. For example, Apple is using AMOLED OLED panel made by SDC in its 2018 iPhone XS – a 5.8″ 1125×2436. Additionally, iPhone X is also using the same AMOLED display.
- DLP Monitors
DLP stands for Digital Light Processing, developed by Texas Instruments. It is a technology, which is used for presentations by projecting images from a monitor onto a big screen. Before developing the DLP, most of the computer projection systems produced faded and blurry images as they were based on LCD technology. DLP technology utilizes a digital micromirror device, which is a tiny mirror housed on a special kind of microchip. Furthermore, it offers better quality pictures that can also be visible in a lit room normally.
- TFT Monitors
It is a type of LCD flat panel display, which stands for a thin-film transistor. In TFT monitors, all pixels are controlled with the help of one to four transistors. The high-quality flat-panel LCDs use these transistors. Although the TFT-based monitors provide better resolution of all the flat-panel techniques, these are highly expensive. The LCDs, which use thin-film transistor (TFT) technology, are known as active-matrix displays. The active-matrix displays offer higher quality as compared to older passive-matrix displays.