AIOU Course Code 1427-2 Solved Assignment Spring 2022

Assignment No. 2

Q.1      Describe the place of goals and goal setting in the planning process.

Goal setting is a powerful process for thinking about your ideal future, and for motivating yourself to turn your vision of this future into reality.

The process of setting goals helps you choose where you want to go in life. By knowing precisely what you want to achieve, you know where you have to concentrate your efforts. You’ll Top-level athletes, successful businesspeople and achievers in all fields all set goals. Setting goals gives you long-term vision and short-term motivation . It focuses your acquisition of knowledge, and helps you to organize your time and your resources so that you can make the most of your life.

By setting sharp, clearly defined goals, you can measure and take pride in the achievement of those goals, and you’ll see forward progress in what might previously have seemed a long pointless grind. You will also raise your self-confidence , as you recognize your own ability and competence in achieving the goals that you’ve set.

You set your goals on a number of levels:

First you create your “big picture” of what you want to do with your life (or over, say, the next 10 years), and identify the large-scale goals that you want to achieve.

Then, you break these down into the smaller and smaller targets that you must hit to reach your lifetime goals.

Finally, once you have your plan, you start working on it to achieve these goals.

Step 1: Setting Lifetime Goals

The first step in setting personal goals is to consider what you want to achieve in your lifetime (or at least, by a significant and distant age in the future). Setting lifetime goals gives you the overall perspective that shapes all other aspects of your decision making month, next week, and today, to start moving towards them.

Setting Smaller Goals

Once you have set your lifetime goals, set a five-year plan of smaller goals that you need to complete if you are to reach your lifetime plan.

Then create a one-year plan, six-month plan, and a one-month plan of progressively smaller goals that you should reach to achieve your lifetime goals. Each of these should be based on the previous plan.

Then create a daily To Do List  of things that you should do today to work towards your lifetime goals.

At an early stage, your smaller goals might be to read books and gather information on the achievement of your higher level goals. This will help you to improve the quality and realism of your goal setting.

Finally, review your plans, and make sure that they fit the way in which you want to live your life.

The following broad guidelines will help you to set effective, achievable goals:

State each goal as a positive statement – Express your goals positively – “Execute this technique well” is a much better goal than “Don’t make this stupid mistake.”

  • Be precise – Set precise goals, putting in dates, times and amounts so that you can measure achievement. If you do this, you’ll know exactly when you have achieved the goal, and can take complete satisfaction from having achieved it.
  • Set priorities – When you have several goals, give each a priority. This helps you to avoid feeling overwhelmed by having too many goals, and helps to direct your attention to the most important ones.
  • Write goals down – This crystallizes them and gives them more force.
  • Keep operational goals small – Keep the low-level goals that you’re working towards small and achievable. If a goal is too large, then it can seem that you are not making progress towards it. Keeping goals small and incremental gives more opportunities for reward.
  • Set performance goals, not outcome goals – You should take care to set goals over which you have as much control as possible. It can be quite dispiriting to fail to achieve a personal goal for reasons beyond your control!
  • In business, these reasons could be bad business environments or unexpected effects of government policy. In sport, they could include poor judging, bad weather, injury, or just plain bad luck.
  • If you base your goals on personal performance, then you can keep control over the achievement of your goals, and draw satisfaction from them.
  • Set realistic goals – It’s important to set goals that you can achieve. All sorts of people (for example, employers, parents, media, or society) can set unrealistic goals for you. They will often do this in ignorance of your own desires and ambitions.
  • It’s also possible to set goals that are too difficult because you might not appreciate either the obstacles in the way, or understand quite how much skill you need to develop to achieve a particular level of performance.

A good goal has a definable endpoint that can be easily measured. Identify measures that indicate when the goal has been achieved (e.g., good attendance might be measured as “less than 1 absence per quarter”). Depending on the goal, there might be several measures that can be used to evaluate achievement—select those that are most appropriate.

Sometimes, it is difficult to measure goal achievement. For example, if your goal is 100% customer satisfaction, and your company does not conduct a customer satisfaction survey, it is difficult to know if the goal has been achieved. In these instances, look for other potential measures of goal attainment (e.g., number or frequency of customer complaints, number of returned purchases). If the goal is critical and there are no existing measures for evaluating it, consider creating new measures.

Having measurable goals is important because it is easier to gauge when the goal has been reached, and it provides a yardstick to measure progress toward the goal. By being measurable, it is easy to see if you are falling behind and to make adjustment early enough to still meet the goal. Not only is it motivating to see progress toward the accomplishment of the goal, it is also important to know when to stop working on it.

Enter the metrics that will be used to measure goal achievement in the second column of the Goal Setting Worksheet.

Determining the amount of time needed to reach the goal and setting a deadline help to create a realistic sense of urgency and provide the motivation necessary to attain the goal. When establishing a deadline, it might be necessary to break an “overall” or large goal into several smaller ones to make it easier to manage the goal-setting process. In addition, some goals may not be achievable until other goals have been reached (e.g., training for a specific skill before Obstacles to goal achievement can come in the form of people, expectations, knowledge, skill, or resources. For example, it may be difficult to reach goals because others will stand in your way (people), you don’t have the existing capability to reach the goal (knowledge/skill), or you don’t have the time to reach the goal or the funding to make it possible (resources).

Likewise, obstacles can be internal or external to the goal seeker. An internal obstacle may be an individual’s habit of procrastinating. An external obstacle may be a lack of resources necessary to achieve the goal. Another common obstacle is the existence of multiple goals. When the person has many goals, they will likely experience, at the very least, conflict in the form of these goals competing for their time and attention.

Q.2. Describe how management by objectives (MBO) works and discuss its strength and weaknesses.

Management by objectives (MBO) is a strategic management model that aims to improve organizational performance by clearly defining objectives that are agreed to by both management and employees.

According to the theory, having a say in goal setting and action plans encourages participation and commitment among employees, as well as aligning objectives across the organization.

Critics of MBO argue that it leads to employees trying to achieve the set goals by any means necessary, often at the cost of the company.

Management by objectives (also known as management by planning) is the establishment of a management information system (MIS) to compare actual performance and achievements to the defined objectives. Practitioners claim that the major benefits of MBO are that it improves employee motivation and commitment and allows for better communication between management and employees.

However, a cited weakness of MBO is that it unduly emphasizes the setting of goals to attain objectives, rather than working on a systematic plan to do so. Critics of MBO, such as W. Edwards Deming, argue that setting particular goals like production targets leads workers to meet those targets by any means necessary, including short-cuts that result in poor quality.

MBO helps in implementing goal oriented management. It can be applied in various areas of organization such as performance appraisal, organizational development, and long range plan MBO results in improved and better managing. Better managing requires setting goals for each and every activity and individual and ensuring that these are achieved. MBO not only helps in setting objectives but also ensures balancing of objectives and resources. For establishing objectives there is a need for better and result oriented planning. Management by objectives forces managers to think about planning for results, rather than merely planning activities or work. Managers will devise ways and means for achieving objectives. The objectives also act as controls and performance standards. So MBO is helpful in improving management, integration of individual and organizational objectives and so on.

MBO helps in clarifying organizational roles and structures. Responsibility and authority are assigned as per the requirements of the tasks assigned. There is no use of fixing objectives without delegating requisite authority. The positions should be built around the key results expected of people occupying them. Implementation of MBO will help in spotting the deficiencies in the organization. The main benefit of MBO is that it encourages personnel to commit themselves for the achievement of specified objectives. In a normal course people are just doing the work assigned to them. They follow the instructions given by the superiors and undertake their work as a routine matter. In MBO the purpose of every person is clearly defined with his or her own consent. People in the organization have an opportunity to put their own ideas before superiors, discuss the pros and cons of various suggestions and participate in setting the final objectives. When a person is a party for setting objectives then he will make honest endeavor to achieve them. He will feel committed to reach the goals decided with his consent. A feeling of commitment brings enthusiasm and helps in reaching the goals.

MBO mechanism helps in devising effective controls. The need for setting controls is the setting of standards and then finding out deviations if any. In MBO, verifiable goals are set and the actual performance will help in finding out the deficiencies in results. Every person is clear about what is expected from him and these standards act as clear cut controls. So controls can easily be devised when MBO is followed. MBO comes with many advantages and disadvantages to a company’s success. The benefits include employees taking pride in their work with goals that they know they can achieve. It also aligns employees with their strengths, skills, and educational experiences. MBO also leads to increased communication between management and employees. Assigning tailored goals brings a sense of importance to employees, bringing loyalty to the firm. And lastly, management can create goals that lead to the success of the company.

The success of MBO will depend upon its proper understanding by managers. When managers are clear about this concept only then they can explain to subordinates how it works, why it is being done, what will be the expected results, how it will benefit participants, etc. This philosophy is based on self-direction and self-control and aims to make managers professionals. If the goal setters are not given proper guidelines for deciding their objectives then MBO will not be a success. The managers who will guide in goal setting should themselves understand the major policies of the company and the role to be played by their activity. They should also know planning premises and assumptions for the future. Failure to understand these vital aspects will prove fatal for this system. The main emphasis in MBO technique is on set ting objectives. The setting of objectives is not a simple thing. It requires lot of information for arriving at the conclusions. The objectives should be verifiable so that performance may be evaluated. Some objectives may not be verifiable, precaution should be taken in defining such objectives. The objectives should not be set casually otherwise MBO may prove liability for the business. In most of the MBO programs there is a tendency to set short-term objectives. Managers are inclined to set goals for a year or less and their thrust is to give undue importance to short term goals at the cost of long term goals. They should achieve short term goals in such a way that they help in the achievement of long term goals also. There may be a possibility that short term and long term objectives may be incompatible because of specific problems. So proper emphasis should be given to both short term and long term objectives. There is a tendency to strict to the objectives even if there is a need for modification. Normally objectives will cease to be meaningful if they are often changed, it will also be foolish to strive for goals which have become obsolete due to revised corporate objectives or modified policies.

Management by objectives often ignores the organization’s existing ethos and working conditions. More emphasis is given on goals and targets. The managers put constant pressure on the employees to accomplish their goals and forget about the use of MBO for involvement, willingness to contribute, and growth of management. The managers sometimes over-emphasize the target setting, as compared to operational issues, as a generator of success. The MBO approach does not emphasize the significance of the context wherein the goals are set. The context encompasses everything from resource availability and efficiency to relative buy-in from the leadership and stakeholder’s. Finally, there is a tendency for many managers to see management by objectives as a total system that can handle all management issues once installed. The overdependence may impose problems on the MBO system that it is not prepared to tackle, and that frustrates any potentially positive effects on the issues it is supposed to deal with.

Q.3. Explain the need for coordination of organization activities, and discuss seven coordination techniques.

Coordination is the act of coordinating, making different people or things work together for a goal or effect. Coordination refers to balancing, timing and integrating activities in an organization. Business involves multiple operations, manifold policies, varied skills, administrative processes and actions, wherein different managers display their talents in different roles.

It is a continuous process for achieving unity of purpose in the organization. It includes all such deliberate efforts on the part of management whereby efforts of various parts of the enterprise are so blended that they move harmoniously towards the accomplishment of organizational objectives.

Structural and Formal Techniques:

  1. Departmentalization:

It means grouping of similar activities into organizational units on the basis of the principles of division of labor. It provides a formal structure to the organization so that everybody knows whom to contact for a particular type of activity. This clarity is conducive to coordination.

  1. Centralization/Decentralization:

It determines whether the locus of decision-making authority lies with the higher or lower levels of the organizational hierarchy. Therefore, it aids in coordination when people are aware of the actual decision ­makers and would like to contact them directly rather than wasting time elsewhere.

iii. Formalization and Standardization:

It is the extent to which policies, rules, job descriptions, etc. have been written down in manuals, and procedures have been established through standard routines. The structure provided by these policies, rules, job descriptions, and procedures guide people in the organization to coordinate as per these guidelines.

  1. Planning:

It refers to systems and processes like strategic planning, budgeting, establishment of schedules, goal setting, etc., which Intend to guide and channel the activities and actions of independent units. Thus, planning provides a framework for coordination, whereby the plans made would identify the need for collaboration and interfacing between various departments and individuals within and outside the organization.

 Informal and Subtle Techniques:    

  1. Lateral or Cross-Departmental Relations:

It cuts across the formal structure, which includes direct contact among managers of different departments that share a problem, temporary or permanent task forces, teams, committees, integrating roles, integrative departments, etc.

  1. Informal Communication:

It supplements the formal communication between managers who form a network of personal and informal contacts among manager’s across-different departments of the organization, through corporate meetings and conferences, management trips, personal visits, transfers of managers, etc.

iii. Socialization:

It helps in creation of an organizational culture of known and shared strategic objectives and values by communicating to individuals about the ways of doing things, the decision-making style, training, transfer of managers, career path management, measurement and reward systems, etc. In this way, a system of ideology is internalized by the executives throughout the organization, generating identification and loyalties, and ultimately, institutionalizing the firm.

According to Galbraithi & Kazanjian (1986), informal and subtle techniques of coordination are added to, and not substituted for formal and structural tech­niques depending upon the complexity of the strategy being pursued. Complex strategies (those resulting from interrelated, multi-plant, multi-market policies) need an enormous coordination effort, and so are implemented through both.

Chain of Command:

This technique also emphasizes that an employee should receive orders form one superior only because dual command is a continuous source of conflict. Management has to exercise authority to regulate the performance of different departments because clear cut authority relationship help in reducing conflicts among different departments.


Co-ordination becomes possible through leadership as it provides individual motivation and persuades the group to have an identity of interests and outlook in group efforts. To achieve the common objectives of an enterprise, the manager must guide and co-ordinate the activities of his subordinates.


This Technique of achieving co-ordination is used in most organizations by forming a committee. Which helps to promote unity of purpose and uniformity of action among different departments. A committee is a group of persons and the decisions of the committee are group decisions which provide co-ordination among various activities and persons through information, advice interchange of ideas etc., while forming the committee utmost care must be taken by the management, otherwise, the decisions taken by the group may not be effective to achieve co-ordination in an enterprise.


Effective communication conveys ideas, opinions or decisions of managers to subordinate at different levels of the organization and carries back information, suggestions’ and responses from subordinates. It regulates the flow of work, co-ordinates the efforts of the subordinates of an enterprise.

To be effective, communication must be as direct as possible so as to minimize the chances of misinterpretation. To ensure proper co-ordination, various kinds of communication channels may be used, such as verbal relay of information, written reports memos or other forms of documents, mechanical devices such as teletypes, intercommunication system, etc.

Voluntarily Coordination:

Self-co-ordination or voluntary co-ordination is possible in a climate of mutual co-operation, when two or more persons working within the same or different departments, mutually discuss their problems and arrive at a coordinated action. This can be easily achieved in any organization, when the supervisor gives his consent without any hesitation for such a mutual consultation among

Sound Planning and Clear-Cut Objectives:

The objectives of the organization and policies must be clearly defined by the management. A well-conceived plan must clearly define the goals of the organization so that inter-departmental objectives can be accomplished. Thus to ensure co-ordination, clear formulation of policies in the field of production,


Incentives have a tendency to ignite action and bring about co-ordination. In order to infuse enthusiasm in a worker for greater and better work, incentives have a distinct and significant role. Financial incentives which include wage, bonus, salary, etc., and no-financial incentives which include job security of interest, to achieve co-ordination and to reduce conflicts.

In a large organisation, special functions are allotted to different heads of departments, each of whom is concerned with only one phase of the total operation, and even bureaucratic in attitude. As for producing goods or rendering services each of these specialised units must contribute their share of the total operation, the need for co-ordination becomes imminent.

Where coor­dination is lacking, re-arrangement of departments may be made in order to bring together activities which have been out of step. Further­more, clear-cut organization and procedures that are well-known to all persons concerned will ensure coordination. Since a business organization is a network of formal and informal relations among people holding designated positions, horizontal and vertical coordination is called for.

Coordination is greatly facilitated if the lines of authority and responsi­bility are clearly drawn. This is done by grouping various functions into homogeneous and non-overlapping units. The heads of these functional units will then know the exact limits of their authority and this will minimize the need for coordination. To ensure coordination, organization should be kept as simple as possible.

Harmonized Programs and Policies:

The ideal time to bring about coordination is at the planning stage. The different plans can be re-examined and checked one against the other to ensure that they all fit together into an integrated, balanced whole. The coordinating executive should check plans developed by different individuals to bring about consistency, and to see that all the plans add up to a unified program Selection of one in preference to other or a compromise between all may have to be resorted to for effective coordination.

Moreover, coordinated activities must not only be consistent with each other, but also be performed at the proper time. For example, one process must not hold back the next process in manufacturing processes. In an assembly line in an automobile plant, timing is one of the cardinal features. The various parts must arrive at the assembly line at just the right moment.

Also, the speed of the assembly line itself and the assignment of work must be adjusted so that one group of employees is not idle for lack of something to do while others are finding it difficult to finish one job before the next job rolls along. Therefore, timing is vital in all operations.

Coordination through Personal Guidance:

The supervising execu­tives have a dominant role to play in bringing about coordination of the tasks of their subordinates. They may do this by prodding, in some cases, restraining in others, providing supplementary help in another quarter, or arbitrating sincere difference of opinion among their subordinates. All this will ensure balance and unity in the total results.

Q.4. Describe the basic communication process and relate communication to the manager’s job.

The communication process refers to a series of actions or steps taken in order to successfully communicate. It involves several components such as the sender of the communication, the actual message being sent, the encoding of the message, the receiver and the decoding of the message. There are also various channels of communication to consider within the communication process. This refers to the way a message is sent. This can be through various mediums such as voice, audio, video, writing email, fax or body language. The overall goal of the communication process is to present an individual or party with information and have them understand it. The sender must choose the most appropriate medium in order for the communication process to have worked successfully.

Communication and management are closely linked. Communication refers to the process by which information is exchanged between two or more people (increasingly, machines are also included in communication, but we limit the discussion here to communication between people). Each of the management roles—planning, organizing, leading, and controlling—depends on effective communication. Managers must be able to receive accurate information to determine plans, and they must be able to send accurate information for the plans to be implemented. When information is accurately sent and received, everyone in an organization can be informed. As we see in the earlier example, however, when information is misinterpreted or when incorrect information spreads, communications can create significant problems in organizations.

The role of management is to accomplish the goals of an organization. To do this, managers create a plan that defines what needs to be done, when it will be done, and how it will be done. To implement the plan, managers must convey this information to everyone in the organization. That is, they must communicate the plan to members of the organization. However, managers need to do much more than just inform people what they need to do to support the plan. They also must motivate people to support the plan, build commitment to the organization, establish rapport and collaboration, and keep everyone informed of events and actions that affect the organization. Good communication not only informs but also helps to create a culture that makes people feel like they belong to and want to support the organization. The opening example shows what can result from poor communication. Following are some of the benefits of effective communication.

Provides clarity. Confusion, uncertainty, and ambiguity make people uncomfortable and uncooperative. Making roles, responsibilities, and relationships clear gives everyone the information they need to do their jobs and to understand their contributions to the organization. Effective communication reduces the cost associated with conflicts, misunderstandings, and mistakes.

Builds Relationships. A culture that promotes open communication reduces tension between hierarchical levels of employees, both professionally and socially. In a trusting and collaborative culture, people are more likely to seek help with problems and to suggest solutions and improvements. Effective communication creates a collegial culture that fosters teamwork and encourages cooperation.

Creates commitment. Effective communication involves not only sending information but also receiving it. By listening to employees’ concerns, allowing them to have input on their work and their workplace, and giving consideration to their suggestions, managers can make everyone in the organization feel like they are valued contributors. When employees feel like they are valued in the organization, they will likely be more engaged and motivated. Effective communication creates support and commitment.

Defines expectations. When people are uncertain about what is expected of them and how they will be evaluated, they can’t do their jobs well. Performance reviews are difficult because the employee does not know the performance standards they are expected to meet. And if corrective measures are necessary, the employee may be resentful if he can’t see how his behaviors reduced his effectiveness. When expectations and standards are clear, employees know what they need to do to get a positive review and the benefits that come with it.

These are just a few of the many benefits that come from effective communications. Managers can only reach organizational goals when the people in the organization are committed to the goals. Pe The communication process may seem simple: one person sends a message and others receive it. The process becomes more complex, however, because the information in the message must be sent and received accurately. The communication-process model describes how the information is sent and received.ople perform much better when they are informed and involved.

It is easiest to understand the model when one person is communicating with another person. The person initiating the communication, the sender, has information he wants the other person, the receiver, to know. However, before it can be sent, the information has to be encoded into a form that can be transmitted. In a simple case, the information is put into words spoken to the receiver. Or the information may be converted into printed text, tables, charts, or graphs given to the receiver. In a more complicated case, the information is encoded into words or images that are then converted into electronic signals sent to the receiver. The channel is the medium through which the information is conveyed. It could be air conveying sound waves, paper conveying text and images, or wires or magnetic fields conveying electronic signals. (We will discuss channels in more detail later in this module.) In the opening example, the management had information that Mathias had been hired and when he would start. They wanted the employees in the company to have that information so they put it in a message and sent it to employees.

The receiver reverses the process. She receives the encoded message and then decodes it. That means she converts the message back into information that can be understood. In the opening example, an employee reads the message and knows who has been hired and when he will start. Information has been transferred from managers to employees. In an interactive communication process, the receiver can send feedback to the sender to indicate that the message has been received and how it has been interpreted. This can start an interactive back-and-forth exchange that can assure the sender that the message has been received and understood correctly.

Q.5. Discuss the major barriers to effective communication and how they can be overcome.      

​Communication is the sharing of information between two people.

When providing support to a person living with a mental health condition it is important that

​Communication is the sharing of information between two people. When providing supports to a person living with a mental health condition it is important that communication works both ways. A communication barrier is something that prevents either person from understanding the information being told.

Good internal communication is one of the most valuable assets in your business. With open, clear, and frequent communication, your team can work toward specific goals and objectives. You share ideas more easily and leave nothing to misinterpretation.

That said, good communication isn’t natural for everyone. It’s a skill that each person must develop and hone. Even then, barriers in communication can arise and unravel your plans, create confusion, and turn progress on its head.

To improve communication, identify the barriers standing between you and a clear message

We have preferences for how we send and receive messages. We respond to different stimuli. Some of us are more forgetful or easily distracted than others, which leads to communication mistakes.

There’s also the matter of personal experience and perspective. We each set different expectations for communicating with others. One person might think it’s acceptable to check email once a day, but another may check email every hour, for example.

Different people may receive things like tone and clarity in different ways. An exclamation point used to express excitement might be misinterpreted as anger or urgency. A person in a hurry might make a blunt statement to save time, but the person receiving the message might feel inferior or chastised as a result.

Even the definition of a good interpersonal relationship can vary from person to person. Some people take issue with a person talking too much, while others might talk a lot because they think it’s their strong suit.

For these reasons, being a great communicator is a skill to learn and develop; it doesn’t happen overnight. It requires a focus on nuance and a depth of knowledge in all the types of ways people communicate to overcome barriers. But many will agree that taking the time to develop this skill will always be worth the business.

Internal communication issues hinder productivity and progress. When teams don’t communicate well, it can cause a ripple effect that increases project costs. Teams may have to rework tasks because someone misunderstood the directions. They may miss project deadlines. That can lead to client dissatisfaction and problems with your organization’s reputation.

Another way poor communication impacts business is in team morale. Poor communication leads to job dissatisfaction and a hostile work environment.

Co-workers might question their abilities to do their job when they don’t understand what to do. They might get reprimanded for making mistakes or passed over for promotions. Teams that don’t handle conflict well are more likely to let it affect their work.

Communication barriers are bad for business. They lead to over-complicated conversations and thwart progress. The inverse to this is also true. Fostering good communication skills can help you avoid mistakes. It leads to better outcomes for the company, its employees, and its customers.

Types of Communication Barriers

Psychological Barriers:

The psychological condition of the receiver will power how the message is received. Stress management is a significant personal skill that affects our interpersonal relationships. For example, Anger is a psychological barrier to communication. When we are angry, it is simple to say things that we may afterwards regret and also to misunderstand what others are saying. Also, people with low self-esteem may be less self-assured and therefore may not feel comfortable communicating.

Physical Communication Barriers:

Communication is usually easier over shorter distances as more communication channels are obtainable, and less technology is obligatory. Although modern technology often serves to decrease the crash of physical barriers, the advantages and disadvantages of each communication channel should be unspoken so that a suitable channel can be used to overcome the physical barriers.

Physiological Barriers:

Physiological barriers may affect the receiver’s physical condition. For example, a receiver with condensed hearing may not grab the sum of a spoken conversation, especially if there is significant surroundings noise.

Language Barriers:

Language and linguistic aptitude may act as a barrier to communication. However, even when communicating in a similar language, the terms used in a message may act as a barrier if it is not easy to understand by the receiver.

Attitudinal Barriers:

Attitudinal barriers are perceptions that stop people from communicating well. Attitudinal barriers to communication may effect from poor management, personality conflicts, and battle to change, or a lack of motivation. Active receivers of messages should challenge to overcome their attitudinal barriers to assist effective communication.

Be aware of language, message and tone:

The sender should ensure that the message should be structured in clear and simple language. The tone of the message should not harm the feelings of the receiver. As far as possible, the contents of the message should be a concise and unnecessary use of technical words should be avoided.

Consult others before communication:

When you’re planning the communication, suggestions should be invited from all the individuals concerned. Its main benefit will be that all those people who are consulted at the time of preparing the communication preparation will add to the success of the communication system.

Communicate according to the need of receiver:

The sender of the communication should organize the formation of the message not according to his or her level, but he or she should keep in mind the point of understanding or the surroundings of the receiver.

Consistency of Message:

The message sent to the receiver should not be self- opposing. It should be in unity with the objectives, programmes, policies and techniques of the organization. When new information has to be sent inlay of the old one, it should always make a declaration of the change; otherwise, it can raise some doubts and queries for the same.

Follow up Communication:

In order to make communication successful, the management should frequently try to know the weaknesses of the communication structure. In this situation effort can be made to know whether to lay more hassle upon the formal or the informal communication would be suitable.

Make sure to receive proper feedback:

The reason for feedback is to find out whether the receiver has appropriately understood the meaning of the information received. In face-to-face communication, the reply of the receiver can be understood. But in the case of written communication or other forms of communications, some correct process of feedback should be adopted by the sender.



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