ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 How does literature allow people to grow intellectually? Explain by using example from your textbook.
It is transparent that literature shows versatile dimension and deals with every aspect of life more or less. It is to be mentioned that the viewpoint of grasping and the degree of infusing in the conscience of the same literary work can be different in case of different people from different social, political, cultural, economic or
intellectual background. There is a lot of stimulating ingredients in literature that can influence life. One has tograb that accordingly. So the main objective of the present research study is to briefly analyze the literature and
its impact and influence on human life. As an educative source, literature plays a significant part in human life.
Literature works with direct or implied moral. A great deal of examples can be drawn from different genres. Soliterature is an emphatic force of education.
Philosophical thoughts are considered as the most ancient pensive creativity. Literature has different
types, oral literature, written literature, scientific literature, technical literature. It performs different functions at
different levels. Literature and life of a society reflect upon each other. Life moulds literature of asociety and literature reflects the real pattern of any society. So after the sequential elapse of time, it is proved that,literature
definitely has profound sway upon life to a large extent. Literature influences us and makes us understand the
every walk of life. Narratives, in particular, inspire empathy and give people a new perspective on their lives
and the lives of others.
Literature grows out of life, reacts upon life and fed by life. Generally, we can say that everything in print is
literature. But this would be a very vague description of literature. Broadly speaking, “literature” is used to
describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works, but the term is most commonly
used to refer to works of the creative imagination, including works of drama, essays, fiction and nonfiction. Any
work of art in which the emotional content predominates is literature. Literature is the expression of written
words. Literature is distinct from all other arts. It has no medium of its own. Many mixed forms of literature
exist in it.
Despite the definitions given above, I feel that literature is beyond these definitions, it is more than what we see
and perceive. Its boundaries cross our lives, our traditions, culture, social relations, national unity and a lot
more. It serves as a reflection of reality, a product of art, and window to an ideology, everything that happens
within a society can be written, recorded in, and learned from the piece of literature. Whether it be poetry or
prose, literature provides insight, knowledge, or wisdom, and emotion towards the person who partakes it
entirely. Our life is manifested in the form of literature. It is an embodiment of words based on human tragedies.
desires, and feelings. It cultivates wonders, inspires a generation and feeds information. Even though it is
dynamic, endless, multi-dimensional, literature contributes significant purpose to world we live in.
The world today is ever-changing. Never before has life been so chaotic and challenging for all. Life before
literature was practical and predictable, but in present day, literature has expanded into countless libraries and
into minds of many as the gateway for comprehension and curiosity of the human mind and the world around
them. Literature is of great importance and is studied upon as it provides the ability to connect human
relationships, and define what is right and what is wrong. Literature is the foundation of life. It places an
emphasis on many topics from human tragedies to tales of ever popular search for love. While it is physically
written in words, these words come alive in the imagination of the mind, and its ability to comprehend the
complexity or simplicity of the text. Literature enables the people to see through the lenses of others, and
sometimes even inanimate objects; therefore it becomes a looking glass into the world as others view. It is a
journey that is inscribed in pages, and powered by the imagination of the reader. Ultimately, literature has
provided a gateway to teach the reader about life experiences from even the saddest stories to the most joyful
ones that will touch their hearts.
With the ability to see the world with a pair of fresh eyes, it triggers the readers to reflect upon their own lives.
Reading a material that is reliable to the reader may teach them morals and encourage them to practice good
judgment. This can be proven through public school systems, where the books that are emphasized the most
tend to have a moral-teaching purpose behind the story. Progressively, as people grow older, they explore other
genres of books, ones that propel them towards curiosity of the subject, and the overall book. Reading and being
given the keys to the literature world prepares individuals from an early to discover the true importance of
literature: being able to comprehend and understand situations from different perspectives. Literature teaches us how to live. Through literature reader visits different places, experiences events, meets
people, listens to them, feels their joys and sorrows. It takes years to acquire so much wisdom that a single book
of literary merit instills in a reader. Literature mirrors the society and its mannerisms. Because of Charles Dickens we can experience the „Hard Time‟ of the Victorian England without going through a detailed historical study. The fact based education system, the fractured human relationships, the Smokey polluted towns, the ill-effects of industrial revolution, the misery of laborers, the mercenary instincts of men and the flawed legal system of the land can be judged and perceived through literature.
Literature is also a tool for the foundation of religion. The Holy Bible, one of the oldest written scriptures, is
compilation of tales, beliefs, and accounts that teach about Christianity. Within a span of more than a thousand
years from the Prophet Moses to the Apostle Paul, Bible was written by numerous authors believed to be
inspired by God‟s divine wisdom and tried to explain about the mysteries of life as well as setting rules for one‟s personal faith. The same goes with Quran for Muslims, Torah for Jews, and Bhagavad Gita, Ramamyana and Vedas for the Hindus. Literature explains human values. The works of Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle (the most famous Greek Philosophers) contain virtues that promote perfection to a society if only human being have the willingness to uphold and practice them.
Among the arts, literature, specially, seems also to claim “truth” through the view of life which every artistically
coherent work possesses. The philosopher or critic must think some of these “views” truer than others but any
mature philosophy of life must have some measure of truth, at any event it lays claim to it. The truth of
literature, as we are now considering it, seems to be the truth in literature—the philosophy which exists, in
systematic conceptual form, outside of literature but may be applied to or illustrated by or embodied in
literature. Eliot‟s view of poetry in its relation to “truth” seems essentially of this sort. Truth is the province of
systematic thinkers; and artists are not thinkers, though they may try to be if there is no philosophies whose
work they can suitably assimilate.
Q.2 Differentiate between poetry and prose. Which do you find more entertaining and why?
Poetry and prose are sometimes used together in the same works. Literature refers to written creative work, particularly those which have a high and enduring value. William Shakespeare’s plays are a common example of poetry and prose appearing together in the same text. Prose and poetry are the two common forms of literature; wherein prose is written work, which contains sentences and paragraphs, and does not have any metrical structure. Classically, prose is defined as a form of language based on grammatical structure and the natural flow of speech. As against, poetry is a genre of literature which is based on a particular form, that creates a rhyme. The most important thing in prose is the message or information. In contrast, the poet shares his/her experience or feelings with the reader, which plays a crucial role in poetry.
The main difference between prose and poetry is that prose is written naturally whereas poetry is written in a metrical structure. We can find prose in newspaper articles, blogs, short stories, etc., however, poetry is used to share something special, aesthetically.
Difference between Prose and Poetry –
- The prose is a straight forward form of literature, wherein the author expresses his thoughts and feelings in a lucid way.
- Prose refers to a form of literature, having ordinary language and sentence structure.
- The language of prose is quite direct or straightforward.
- The prose is an ordinary writing style in literature, which encompasses characters, plot, mood, theme, point of view, setting, etc. making it a distinctive form of language.
- The prose contains paragraphs, which include a number of sentences, that have an implied message or idea. It is written using grammatical sentences, which form a paragraph. It may also include dialogues, and is sometimes, supported by images but does not have a metrical structure.
- Prose can be fictional or non-fictional, heroic, alliterative, village, polyphonic, prose-poetry, etc.
- Biography, autobiography, memoir, essay, short stories, fairy tales, article, novel, blog, and so forth use prose for creative writing.
- Poetry is the form of literature in which the poet uses a unique style and rhythm, to express intense experience.
- Poetry is that form of literature, which is aesthetic by nature, i.e. it has a sound, cadence, rhyme, meter, etc., that adds to its meaning.
- In poetry, we use an expressive or creative language, which includes comparisons, rhyme, and rhythm that give it a unique cadence and feel.
- Poetry is something that arouses a complete imaginative feeling, by choosing an appropriate language and selective words and arranging them in a manner that creates a proper pattern, rhyme (two or more words having identical ending sounds) and rhythm (cadence of the poem).
- Poetry is written in verses, which are covered in stanzas. These verses leave a lot of unsaid things, and their interpretation depends upon the imagination of the reader.
- Poetry uses an artistic way to communicate something special, i.e. a musical intonation of stressed (long sounding) and unstressed (short sounding) syllables to express or describe emotions, moments, ideas, experiences, feelings and thoughts of the poet to the audience. The structural components of poetry include lines, couplet, strophe, stanza, etc.
- It is in the form of verses, which constitute stanzas, that follow a meter. The number of verses in a stanza depends upon the type of the poem.
The structure of a poem favours brevity yet the best poems also capture succinct detail, making them incredibly powerful in getting a message across to the reader. Writing poetry requires the poet to be extremely disciplined with his choice of words and the number of words, to create a sharp and accurate snapshot of what he or she is feeling. This combination of brevity and detail gives the reader open access to the poet’s mind and enables the reader to truly connect with the poet. Poetry has also been used by modern-day doctors and physicians at Yale University School of Medicine and University College London School of Medicine. Yale actually has a committee that maintains a required literary reading list which includes poetry. Poetry allows both the doctor and the patient to understand the emotions that the patient might be going through which adds another facet to their overall care.
The use of poetry continues to grow as a recognised form of therapy. More and more psychotherapists across the US, UK and Europe continue to use poetry therapy as part of their practice. Globally the International Federation for Biblio / Poetry Therapy sets standards of excellence in the training and credentialing of practitioners in the field of biblio/poetry therapy, qualifying them to practice.
Q.3 Define the following with examples.
- i) Hyperbole
Hyperbole is a figure of speech and literary device that creates heightened effect through deliberate exaggeration. Hyperbole is often a boldly overstated or exaggerated claim or statement that adds emphasis without the intention of being literally true. In rhetoric and literature, hyperbole is often used for serious, comic, or ironic effects.
Here are some examples of hyperbole in well-known advertisements:
- When you’re here, you’re family. (Olive Garden)
- Breakfast of champions (Wheaties)
- ii) Rhyme
Rhyme is a literary device, featured particularly in poetry, in which identical or similar concluding syllables in different words are repeated. Rhyme most often occurs at the ends of poetic lines. In addition, rhyme is principally a function of sound rather than spelling. For example, words rhyme that end with the same vowel sound but have different spellings: day, prey, weigh, bouquet. This is true for words with the same consonant ending as well: vain, rein, lane. Rhyme is therefore predominantly independent of the way words look or are spelled. Writers use rhymes as a way to create sound patterns in order to emphasize certain words and their relationships with others in an artistic manner.
Meter is a literary device that works as a structural element in poetry. Essentially, meter is the basic rhythmic structure of a line within a poem or poetic work. Meter functions as a means of imposing a specific number of syllables and emphasis when it comes to a line of poetry that adds to its musicality. It consists of the number of syllables and the pattern of emphasis on those syllables. In addition, meter governs individual units within a line of poetry, called “feet.” A “foot” of a poetic work features a specific number of syllables and pattern of emphasis.
- iv) Symbolism
Symbolism is a literary device that uses symbols, be they words, people, marks, locations, or abstract ideas to represent something beyond the literal meaning.
The concept of symbolism is not confined to works of literature: symbols inhabit every corner of our daily life. For instance, the colors red, white, and blue typically symbolize patriotism (in America at least), which is why they’re the favored hues of political yard signs. Colors like orange and brown connote fall, which is why they adorn so many Thanksgiving decorations. Road signs, logos, and emojis are other examples of symbolism—the visuals correspond to ideas, companies, or moods.
Q.4 Images help a reader mentally experience what characters are experiencing in literary texts. Explain with examples.
Sensory imagery involves the use of descriptive language to create mental images. In literary terms, sensory imagery is a type of imagery; the difference is that sensory imagery works by engaging a reader’s five senses. Any description of sensory experience in writing can be considered sensory imagery. Most writing contains some level of imagery. One reason fiction writers deal in significant concrete detail is to permit the reader the pleasure of arriving at their own judgments and conclusions through perceptual clues. However, writers don’t have to always resort to describing the way things look to create mental images.
Describing how something tastes, smells, sounds, or feels—not just how it looks—makes a passage or scene come alive. Using a combination of imagery and sensory imagery arms the reader with as much information as possible and helps them create a more vivid mental picture of what is happening.
6 Different Types of Sensory Imaginery
A passage of writing can contain imagery that appeals to multiple senses. It is useful to break down sensory imagery by sense.
- Visual imagery engages the sense of sight. This is what you can see, and includes visual descriptions. Physical attributes including color, size, shape, lightness and darkness, shadows, and shade are all part of visual imagery.
- Gustatory imagery engages the sense of taste. This is what you can taste, and includes flavors. This can include the five basic tastes—sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami—as well as the textures and sensations tied to the act of eating.
- Tactile imagery engages the sense of touch. This is what you can feel, and includes textures and the many sensations a human being experiences when touching something. Differences in temperature is also a part of tactile imagery.
- Auditory imagery engages the sense of hearing. This is the way things sound. Literary devices such as onomatopoeia and alliteration can help create sounds in writing.
- Olfactory imagery engages the sense of smell. Scent is one of the most direct triggers of memory and emotion, but can be difficult to write about. Since taste and smell are so closely linked, you’ll sometimes find the same words (such as “sweet”) used to describe both. Simile is common in olfactory imagery, because it allows writers to compare a particular scent to common smells like dirt, grass, manure, or roses.
- Kinesthetic imagery (a.k.a kinesthesia) engages the feeling of movement. This can be similar to tactile imagery but deals more with full-body sensations, such as those experienced during exercise. Rushing water, flapping wings, and pounding hearts are all examples of kinesthetic imagery.
- The Yellow Wallpaper, Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1892). “The color is repellant, almost revolting; a smouldering, unclean yellow, strangely faded by the slow-turning sunlight. It is a dull yet lurid orange in some places, a sickly sulphur tint in others.” The descriptions of color here are visual imagery. “Faded,” “dull,” and “lurid” are all adjectives we associate with color. Meanwhile, “smouldering,” “unclean,” and “sickly” are unusual descriptors, since they’re typically associated with people, not colors. By using a combination of commonplace and unusual language to describe color, Perkins Gilman both invites us to imagine the actual color of the wallpaper and imbues it with emotional weight, transforming this room into a symbol of the character’s emotional frustration and oppression.
Moby Dick, Herman Mellville (1851). “The vast swells of the omnipotent sea; the surging, hollow roar they made, as they rolled along the eight gunwales, like gigantic bowls in a boundless bowling-green; the brief suspended agony of the boat, as it would tip for an instant on the knife-like edge of the sharper waves, that almost seemed threatening to cut it in two; the sudden profound dip into the watery glens and hollows; the keen spurrings and goadings to gain the top of the opposite hill; the headlong, sled-like slide down its other side;—all these, with the cries of the headsmen and harpooneers, and the shuddering gasps of the oarsmen, with the wondrous sight of the ivory Pequod bearing down upon her boats with outstretched sails, like a wild hen after her screaming brood;—all this was thrilling.” This passage uses kinesthetic imagery—surging, rolled, tip, dip, slide, shuddering—to give the feeling of motion on a boat. Sound is also important to this passage: we can imagine the scream of chickens, the gasps of the oarsmen, and the hollow roar of the ocean.
Q.5 Read the poem ‘Two Sunflowers Move in the Yellow Room’ by William Blake and explain how personification works.
“Two Sunflowers Move in the Yellow Room,” is a terrific example of personification at its finest. The Sunflowers, weary of rain are looking for a “room with a view” where they can take “root in the carpet.” Blake also does great jobs with catchy phrases and brilliant imagery. This poem can easily be enjoyed by any age, making it very versatile. William Blake created an allusion of humanistic sunflowers by applying detailed traits to them. Personification is a useful technique that can be applied to poetry. Personification is the attribution of human characteristics to a non-human object. Blake applies this technique throughout, “Two Sunflowers Move in the Yellow Room,” by express human traits in sunflowers. They speak, and travel just as a pair of people would. By giving the sunflowers human characteristics Blake allows for them to become more relatable to the reader. These non-human character essentially resemble something very relatable that the reader can significantly connect easier with them. This technique is easily applicable and readers respond well to it.
Q.6 Making use of strong personality adjectives, turn a weak character from any story you have read into a strong character. Also provide comparison of both to show the difference.
One Major Pitfall of Writing Strong Characters
Taken by themselves, the above elements might create that strong personality we talked about. But they won’t necessarily create a strong character. Why? Because they’re too one-sided.
Strength, by its very nature, indicates an overcoming of weakness. Strength with no weakness is like light with no dark. Whatever Obi-Wan may say, that just doesn’t work.
Perfect characters aren’t strong characters. They’re boring characters. As a matter of fact, we could even argue they’re not strong characters at all, since they have nothing to overcome. They have no way to prove to readers–to show readers–their strength.
As authors, we can be blind to the problems caused by a character’s lack of weaknesses. Either we lose sight of the character’s internal struggle or we become so enamored with our creation that we put him on a pedestal where he can do no wrong. The more time you spend writing a character, the more this becomes a danger.
Kate Beckett from Castle is a good example. She starts out as a strong personality, but one who possesses plenty of offsetting weaknesses. She’s smart, she’s tough, she’s self-sufficient. But she’s also racked with pain and personal problems in the wake of her mother’s murder. She’s terrified of letting people–especially Rick Castle–into her life.
That terror, hidden under all her seeming perfect polish, is what made her a great character. She was admirable in so many ways, but she wasn’t flawless. The juxtaposition between the two was her most interesting quality.
But then something happened. As the story went on (and on and on) and she finally solved her mother’s murder, her flaws and her fear suddenly disappeared. The realism disappeared right along with it. All that’s left is a super-cop, super-wife who can do no wrong and has no doubts (even her hair got perfect).
Q.7 diction, syntax, tone and dialogue are elements of style. Keeping in mind the elements mentioned, explain Charlotte Bronte’s style of authorship?
Charlotte Bronte’s Style in Jane Eyre Charlotte Bronte’s style of writing is distinctively her own. In her novel Jane Eyre, she writes in a style that is extraordinarily powerful and expresses quite accurately the meaning she wishes to convey. Her style of writing is characterized by a command of language, by spontaneity, by a chaste simplicity and by a felicity in the choice of words and in combing them into phrases, clauses and sentences. She uses a great deal of dialogue and has an excellent ear for the “idioms of class and age.” She disliked ornamentation and the use of too many words and her style is therefore straightforward. Stevenson, in “The English Novel” (1960), suggests that Bronte’s “practice in poetry had trained her to choose her connotative words and similes that evoke sense impressions as one reads.” After Jane has consented to be Rochester’s wife, a great storm breaks over Thornfield Hall, and the next morning little Adele comes running to tell Jane that the great horse-chestnut at the bottom of the orchard has been struck by lightning in the night, and half of I split away. When the madwoman attacks her brother we are told, “Not the wildest-winged condor on the Andes could, twice in succession, send out such a yell from the cloud shrouding his eyrie.” Jane’s description of herself (“I was discord in Gateshead Hall.”) or her references to the terrible change that came upon her after the interrupted marriage service prove that Charlotte Bronte has a masterly command of the English language