AIOU Course Code 1423-2 Solved Assignment Autumn 2022

ASSIGNMENT No. 2

Q.1   Critically reflect on education system of Pakistan and give five examples depicting each of the following functions. Use appropriate expressions each time.                                                

         i.       Possibility

Pakistan has expressed its commitment to promote education and literacy in the country by education policies at domestic level and getting involved into international commitments on education. In this regard national education policies are the visions which suggest strategies to increase literacy rate, capacity building, and enhance facilities in the schools and educational institutes. MDGs and EFA programmes are global commitments of Pakistan for the promotion of literacy. A review of the education system of Pakistan suggests that there has been little change in Pakistan’s schools since 2010, when the 18th Amendment enshrined education as a fundamental human right in the constitution. Problems of access, quality, infrastructure and inequality of opportunity, remain endemic.

         ii.      Impossibility

The goal of MDGs that is not possible in Pakistan is to achieve Universal Primary Education (UPE) and by 2025, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. By the year 2024 the enrolment statistics show an increase in the enrolment of students of the age of 3-16 year while dropout rate decreased. But the need for increasing enrolment of students remains high to achieve MDGs target. Punjab is leading province wise in net primary enrolment rate with 62% enrolment. The enrolment rate in Sindh province is 60%, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) 50% and primary enrolment rate in Balochistan is 40%.

The goal of MDGs that is not possible in Pakistan is Promoting Gender Equality and Women Empowerment. It is aimed at eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2020 and in all levels of education not later than 2025. There is a stark disparity between male and female literacy rates. The national literacy rate of male was 71% while that of female was 48% in 2013-24. Provinces reported the same gender disparity. Punjab literacy rate in male was 71% and for females it was 54%. In Sindh literacy rate in male was 72% and female 47%, in KPK male 70% and females 35%, while in Balochistan male 62% and female 23%.

Q.2   Write a dialogue between a teacher and a student on the importance of developing good reading habits to be successful in one’s educational career.

Ali: Asslam-o-Alaikum Sir and Good Morning.

Teacher: Wa Alaikum Asslam, Good Morning.

Ali: How are you Sir?

Teacher: I am fine and how about you?

Ali: Me too fine sir.

Teacher: What is your read?

Ali: Sir actually I could not get time to read.

Teacher: What other things are more important than study? You are just a student.

Ali: Sir, actually I went to Lahore with my cousin. We had already planned a picnic party.

Teacher: Strange. You enjoy a picnic at the cost of your education. This is not the value you give to your education.

Ali: Sir, what difference did it make to miss a read?

Teacher: As marks of every test counts for your educational performance, your reading habits decides your future personality.

Ali: Oh, I see.

Teacher: If you want to succeed in life do give value to your studies and reading. Never take it as a secondary cause. The knowledge is your real asset. It will return you the same in the future as you give to it today.

Ali: I am really sorry sir. I will never underestimate the importance of the reading.

Teacher: Great. Now let us get to work.

Ali: Sure sir.

Q.3   Given below is a job advertisement. Suppose you intend to apply for the said post, how would you write an application? What details you would like to add to make yourself as the most suitable candidate for the post?                 

Your name

Address:

Contact details:

Email address:

Date: MM/ DD/ YYYY

Assistant Director (Admin)

H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, Karachi

Mr. Director,

I am writing to express my keen interest on the HR manager position in your company. I would like to present my CV with this regard. Having good verbal skills and writing style, I believe to become as asset to your organization. Original content and quick turnaround time are something I can offer you.

My experience and knowledge that I have gained in the past five years will be an added advantage to your company. During this span of time, I was responsible to design strategies. I was involved with management responsibilities as well. I have expertise in the management and development of different steps. I have worked with a qualified team of the HR managering panel and provided them with good quality methods that would bring huge traffic to the products. I have also worked in a number of departments and developed the good maps related to application and other forms. I am flexible and have good business relationships with the people I work with. HR managering had always been fun for me. I can think differently. Moreover, I am open to learning new concepts, which I believe helps me in the growth of his career. I know what it takes to be a good administrator and bring success at designing. I am looking forward to meet you and discuss on this further. I can be reached at (insert contact details) or simply email me at (mention email address).

Sincerely,

Your name:

Q.4 Why do we use passive voice construction in language? Elaborate your answer with suitable examples.            

Because we don’t emphasize the person responsible for the action, the action itself becomes more important in the reader’s mind. In fact, often when using the passive voice, we leave out the subject altogether. When we don’t know who performed the action, we tend to use the passive voice because it allows us to omit the subject. This comes in handy when we don’t want to reveal, just yet, who the guilty party is. It creates anonymity and also a sense of mystery. Because the passive voice creates a sense of emotional distance between the reader and the narrative, the reader can become more objective about what he or she is reading. This is one of the main reasons why scientific reports are often written in the passive voice. While the journalism writing coaches encourage active writing, especially in broadcast, there are often legal reasons that underpin the choice of passive voice. For example: The water was polluted by a nearby mining operation. In Pakistan, the passive form of this statement is legally safer. A court hasn’t yet proven, or the mining company hasn’t yet claimed responsibility, that a specific mining company is culpable for the pollution in this body of water. The X mining operation polluted the nearby water. If the active voice sounds more conversational, the passive voice sounds more formal. Readers tend to perceive this formality as more professional and more authoritative. It sounds like the author knows what he or she is talking about.                                                          

Q.5      How would you grant or refuse permission in the following scenarios? Use different expression each team.                                                  

          i.        Your sister is in the need of your laptop

For sure, go ahead. Its right there.

          ii.       your colleague wants you to complete his/her assignment too

Sorry, I have insufficient time to do so.

          iii.      A friend of your wants to lend your camera

Yes, you can, but please make it hurry I have to go out in some days.

          iv.      One of your uncles wants to visit you on this weekend

I welcome. It would be great having you here.

          v.       Your cousin wants to use your car

Sure, but make it a safe drive.

Q.6      Write a descriptive paragraph based on a terrible incident of a house on fire which you witnessed recently. Write a catchy topic sentence. add relevant supporting details and end it properly. Your paragraph should be both cohesive and coherent.

It was midnight when the hands of the clock join palms. There was deep silence everywhere. I was enjoying a sound sleep in my room with my younger brother. All of a sudden, I was awakened by the noise of footsteps outside. It appeared as if the people were running in the street. I got up and peeped down from the window. I came to know that the house of my friend Roshan was ablaze. I at once hurried to the spot.

The house was completely enveloped in flames. A strong wind formed the fire. The flames leaped to the sky giving out the clouds of smoke. The owner of the house was beating his breast, crying “ I am undone!, I have lost all!” the articles were lying scattered in the street. There were endless hurry and excitement. Many were busy in bringing buckets of water while others poured it on the fire.  I, too, joined them, we tried our best to put out the fire, but all our efforts were in vain. 

The fire brigade was rung up. In no time it was there. A crew of active men in brass helmets got to work and the fire was brought under control in half an hour. God be thanked, the neighboring houses were saved.

 It is said that it was all due to the carelessness of the servant who was a heavy smoker. While smoking his pipe, he dozed off to sleep. The burning ashes from the pipe fell down and set fire to the bed. Soon the fire spread in the whole building.

The loss was estimated at more than five lakhs. Everyone had sympathy for the affected family. They were shifted to a nearby house and an emergency meeting of all the elders of the colony was called. It was decided that the house will be repaired as a joint venture by people.

 God save everybody from such a calamity but we have to be very vigilant to keep away from such an event and when we face one face it boldly as life is another name of a struggle.

Q.7    Write a detailed essay of around 300-350 words on the given topic.

Literature is a Reflection of Real Life

Literature enables us to connect with the reality in our day to day lives. It informs us about the past, and also assists come into terms with the modern times. It is possible to understand the different aspects of life with the study of literature hence adding value in our lives. I will analyze three journals and their relations with real life situations.

 ‘The snows of Kilimanjaro’ is a short story about a writer, Harry and his rich wife Helen who go hunting in Africa and their truck falls apart. Unfortunately, his leg is pricked by a thorn and his leg starts decaying from gangrene which eventually leads to his death. Before he dies, he complains a lot which clearly brings out his character as bitter. Instead of listening to his wife reading out a book to him, he prefers quarrelling. “I can’t listen to it,” he said.” Talking is the easiest. We quarrel and that makes the time pass.” To add to this, he is also very rude to his wife.  He calls her a bitch when she tells him he is sweet to her.  “You bitch,” he said. “You rich bitch.” He is also portrayed as sarcastic. When he says his leg is painless and his wife asks ‘is it really?’ he gives a sarcastic answer, “Absolutely. I’m awfully sorry about the odor though. That must bother you.” Similarly, the minute his wife insists there is something she can do, he tells her “You can take the leg off and that might stop it, though I doubt it. Or you can shoot me. You’re a good shot now. I taught you to shoot, didn’t I?” It is also clear he is a pessimist. His wife reasons that they should make it easy until the plane comes. He however responds negatively, “Or until the plane doesn’t come.”

Naturalism is simply the description of realism in the literature being analyzed. This is clearly brought out in the play Streetcar named desire in several instances and has been achieved by blending what happens in real life to the occurrences in the play. The use of generating sciences in the story has displayed naturalism too. To start with, Stella’s house is defined to be in a humble neighborhood of New Orleans. Noise from the street could be heard plus music from a far. Blanche comes in dressed in white and starts hurting Stella by reminding her about the past. To add to that, Stanley is defined as an animal. He is strong, rough and harsh. He not only smacks his wife but is also mean to Blanche. After his wife goes to hospital, he comes home and finds Blanche alone only to rape her. This clearly shows the nature of human beings of taking advantage of others’ feebleness and their ability to hurt others. Stanley and Stella’s relationship are more of a physical one and that’s why Stella keeps going back to her husband even after striking her when she is expectant. She also does not believe her husband Stanley could rape her sister. Blanche going mad is also another case of naturalism since it shows her vulnerability. Her use of language also displays she is a teacher.

Modernism in ‘The Great Gatsby’ is displayed in several cases. A lot of partying is done where Gatsby throws a lot of parties in a bid to win Daisy back. Too much alcohol is also taken in this story to a point the narrator fails to remember some parts of the story because he is too drunk. Gatsby is also said to have a lot of wealth whose source is unidentified.  Women and relationships are also a clear indication of modernism in this story. Gatsby would have wanted to be with his love Daisy but he gets she is married. He goes ahead to look for her and they get in a relationship yet Daisy is married. The protagonist in Fitzgerald’s story is Jay Gatsby. He is from a humble background and falls in love with Daisy Fay who gets married while he is away. A conflict approaches when he comes back and rekindles their relationship. Tom, Daisy’s husband confronts Gatsby about it and his unidentified source of wealth. He is eventually killed by Wilson who was given wrong information by Tom that Gatsby killed his wife. This enables Tom to run away with Daisy. Gatsby is not able to overcome the conflict and becomes a victim. He is sympathetic since he covers up for Daisy for a murder he didn’t commit. Though he shouldn’t have gone out with a married woman, I don’t think he deserved to be killed.


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