AIOU Course Code 837-1 Solved Assignment Spring 2022

M.ED / MA Education Solved Assignment

Course: Educational Research (837)

Semester: Spring, 2022

Assignment No. 01

Q.1 Write a detailed note on scientific method.

The scientific method is an empirical method for acquiring new knowledge. It began in 1660 with natural philosophers like René Descartes, who tried to explain what was going on in the world by trying to reproduce observations with experiments. This allowed them to make conclusions and be sure of their accuracy.


Although procedures vary per field of inquiry, the underlying process is mostly the same across fields. The process in the scientific method involves making conjectures hypothetical explanations), deriving predictions from the hypotheses as logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions according to the scientific method. A hypothesis is a conjecture based on knowledge obtained while seeking answers. The hypothesis might be very specific or broad. Then scientists conduct experiments or studies in order to test hypotheses by appealing to falsifiable outcomes per their expectations. Hypotheses must be provably falseable in order for them to be meaningfully tested otherwise they are useless contributions that progress nothing.


Used in any field of science, the purpose of an experiment is to find out whether observations agree with or conflict with what’s expected. Experiments can be done anywhere from a garage to a remote mountaintop to CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. It can be difficult for people to understand how experiments work, because there is often a rigid formula of steps that are used. However, the scientific method represents more principles that are flexible in nature and don’t always happen in the same order.


Science is built on the principle of empiricism. This is in opposition to forms of scientific rationalism: science puts the empirical data forward in the form of experience or other abstracted forms of knowledge. In current scientific practice, scientific modelling and reliance on abstract typologies and theories are normally accepted. Science counters claims that revelation, political or religious dogma, appeals to tradition, commonly held beliefs, common sense, or current theories with rigorous experimentation to demonstrate truth. There are different ways of outlining what components make up the scientific method used for inquiry. The consensus among members of the science community and philosophy of science is that this cycle can be broken into four stages: hypothesis formulation, hypothesis formation, research plan design and construction, analytical follow-up assessment.


The scientific method is a cyclical process through which information is continually revised and developed. It is generally recognized to develop advances in knowledge through the following elements, in varying combinations or contributions:


Prose (the words and sentences that make up narrative text),




Predictions are wrought under two conditions; inductive, and deductive reasoning.


Tests (any and all experiments with the aforementioned sentence)


Peer review is an invaluable asset for scientific data. Scientists use this process to check for any mistakes and to minimize errors before publishing or sharing their knowledge. They don’t rely on peer review to do everything; it’s not the only thing in science that scientists do, but most of them rely on it for experimental sciences (e.g., physics, chemistry, biology, and psychology).


The scientific method is not a single recipe. It requires intelligence, imagination, and creativity. It’s not a mindless set of standards and procedures to follow — it’s an ongoing cycle, constantly developing more accurate, useful models and methods to accomplish tasks. When Einstein developed the Special Theory of Relativity, he did not in any way refute or discount Newton’s Principia. On the contrary, if the astronomically massive, the feather-light, and the extremely fast are removed from Einstein’s theories – all phenomena Newton could not have observed – his theories are what remain. They are expansions and refinements of Newton’s theories that build confidence in Newton’s work.


A pragmatic framework for the four-point approach is sometimes offered as a guideline.


What are the steps needed to complete this task?


Gather information and resources (gather)


Thoroughly explore the issue or problem


Test the hypothesis by evaluating your results in a way that can be proven.


Analyze the data and make your data-informed decisions


Suggest a different interpretation than is traditionally accepted as the norm, and use information to support it.


Manage results


In some cases, retesting is necessary because of experimental errors, inconclusive results and surprising findings. Retesting is done by other scientists in order to avoid these issues.


This iterative cycle is the fundamental principle of this step-by-step method. As you complete step 3, 4, and 5 with your product, then you’ll move on to 6 again.


The scientific method is deliberately unbiased. In other words, it gives equal time to the unknown or the subject of study without any judgments. For example, Benjamin Franklin thought that St. Elmo’s fire was electrical in nature but hasn’t been proven true until now, which took a long series of experiments and theoretical changes to establish. While scientists are seeking out pertinent properties for the subjects of their investigation, careful thought may also entail some definitions and observations. The observations often demand careful measurements and/or counting.


Often, the difference between a pseudoscience and science is how measurements or counts are collected. When these measurements are taken systematically and correctly, it’s often called scientific measurement. In this way, we can conduct statistical manipulations on measurements like correlation and regression. These measurements might be taken in a controlled setting, such as a laboratory, or they might be more difficult to collect on the object at hand, like stars or human populations.


Scientists across the world have observed that the progress of a science field is usually intimately tied to their invention and improvement.


Measurements in scientific work are also usually accompanied by estimates of their uncertainty. These may be estimated by making repeated measurements of the desired quantity, or by considering the uncertainties of the individual underlying quantities used. Counts of things, such as the number of people in a nation at a particular time, may also have an uncertainty due to data collection limitations. Or counts may represent a sample of desired quantities, with an uncertainty that depends upon the sampling method used and the number of samples taken.


Researchers at Scientifics Research use the latest methods and methods to get answers. They use research methods such as literature reviews, case studies and surveys.


Among the nine characteristics, objectivity and systematic exploration are two of the most important. Objectivity helps scientists avoid biases as they investigate their research questions and explore new areas of knowledge. Systematic exploration helps gather evidence, acquire information, and make scientific discoveries equally likely across different fields of study.




Objectivity is an important part of scientific knowledge, and means that the facts are just facts—and that one should be able to accept them without feeling a need for change. To truly recognize the benefits of objectivity, one has to protect oneself from their own prejudices, beliefs, desires and values. So, as long as you’re afraid your work won’t be objective enough, we cover everything in our Proofreading service!




Science is based on empirical data, which are objective observations that anyone can observe with their own eyes. It’s important to have concrete evidence so that other observers can validate the observation. Science relies on observable events and measurable data in order of observation and measurement as they happen; this way, they ultimately lead to greater scientific knowledge.


Is there a god? The question of the existence or otherwise of the soul, heaven, or hell is not scientific because it cannot be treated objectively. Evidence for its existence can’t be gathered through science’s methods. Focus on questions where verifiable evidence can be found, like with what you’ve learned in science class.


Using Ethical Neutral Position


Science seeks truth and knowledge for its own sake. There are many ways that scientific knowledge can be used, including for cures or to end up in a nuclear war. Science is morally neutral and cannot decide which uses it falls into, since this is determined by society’s values.


The scientific process is unbiased by design. Scientists are responsible for providing the evidence that proves or disproves a hypothesis, and their values shouldn’t be allowed to distort their findings in the process. They provide knowledge without any hint of bias or prejudice — that’s ethical neutrality.


Systematic Exploration


A scientific study utilizes a process that depends on rigor and methodical research in order to draw conclusions about a given subject. This process consists of a set of steps that can be roughly categorized as: the formulation of hypotheses, collecting data, analyzing the data (classification, coding and tabulation), generalizing and predicting results.




Scientific knowledge when it happens should happen repeatedly under the prescribed circumstances. In order to ensure that it cannot be replicated anywhere else, it should also happen at a certain time and place. The conclusions based on casual memories are not very reliable.


Every article posted to the website will be accurate.


The goal of scientific writing is to be exact and objective, which requires putting accurately measured data in the appropriate context. But many scientists find it difficult to write with the other valuable elements of good writing like beauty and persuasiveness. “Every moment a man dies” and “every fourth second, on average, a baby is born” are vague as literary expressions. In order for any literary expression to be scientific, it must have factual data that can be verified. If you say someone is against something when this isn’t true, even if there are more people who are supporting that idea than opposing it- you’re not being scientific.


Accuracy is essential for producing high-quality content


This format is especially fitting for small businesses because it ensures high quality at an affordable price. In short, you get what you need, and pay for exactly what you get.


The important thing is that the doctor communicates with the patient in a way that’s understandable. When a doctor states that the patient has high or low temperature, it can be hard to understand. Scientific knowledge requires precision. The best way for the doctor to communicate about a real-life situation is for him to use thermometers when necessary.


We always strive for precision in our writing projects. Our team at essay helpers will always work by the rule of truth and correction when completing any task on your account.


The concept of abstraction is not always as easy to understand as it might seem. It’s actually a fine line between abstraction and a close-to-reality representation of your content. When you’re creating abstract graphics, it can be difficult to know when one ends and the next begins.


Because science is progressing at a rapid pace, an abstract concept such as general principles are what you should expect. Although he doesn’t want to provide a realistic image, they should be completely understandable to those paying attention.



A tense or dreaded event in an observer’s life or the lives of others (usually followed by “that” or “what”)


Social scientists are taught to not only observe, but document and explain the phenomena they study. The results of the natural sciences’ predictability allow for even more research because a controlled experiment is avoided, among many other reasons.


Q.3 In Pakistan, what levels of research should be conducted? How is this related to the various levels in society?


Research areas are words that describe the broad topic of a research topic. For example, human physiology can be placed into a research area as mentioned earlier, but even further specifics could be cardiac electrophysiology, or machine learning diversely.


Research topics can be specific questions, hypotheses or problems that you want to investigate and answer. As an example, research area is neuroscience/neurophysiology and research topic would be: Investigating the mechanisms of neuronal communication.


Educational research is a systematic process of investigating educational problems with empirical methods, adopting scientific-minded techniques to gather data that can be analyzed to solve those problems and learn more about the world.


W. Best defines research in educational settings as the process of finding identifiers for patterns and trends in the ways that people learn. The ultimate goal of such research is to provide those stakeholders with information about the way certain things work so they can choose which strategies or methods will enable them to achieve their goals, more effectively and efficiently.


The primary purpose of educational research is to expand existing knowledge through well-researched approaches in teaching and learning. One way to think of this process is that it borrows from many different arenas like marketing, publishing, the arts, and scientific inquiry.


The Automated Creative Tasks can solve a specific problem by making it easy and convenient to stay on top of all the day-to-day details of your business.


Educational research relies on primary and secondary sources of information in order to collect data. In other words, the investigator looks first at personal or firsthand experiences, and then looks into outside information sources to try to reach a conclusion.


When it comes to educational research, empirical evidence is key. This approach relies on scientific proof to create a strong base for the facts being studied.


Education research is objective and accurate because all the information is based on verifiable facts.


When conducting research, researchers have the option of using surveys, statistics, ethnographies, or interviews to reach the most objective answers.


Science professionals from a wide range of fields come to the ALS in order to conduct experiments. Listed below are some of the most common research areas covered by ALS beamlines. Below each heading are a few examples of the specific types of topics included in that category. Click on a heading to learn more about that research area and what is possible at the ALS.


Applied Sciences


Optics, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, metrology, instrumentation, detectors, new synchrotron techniques.


Biological Sciences


General biology is the study of living organisms, including their structures and chemistry. Structural biology is the study of the physical and chemical properties of cells, as well as how these properties affect overall function.


Inorganic Chemistry


Aside from surfaces, chemical reactions and behavior is greatly impacted by interfaces. Catalysts can play a role in making reaction rates faster. Lastly, the study of crystallography and physical chemistry serve to better understand both solids and liquids that are governed by different rules.


Earth & Environmental Sciences


As a humanities professor, an environmental lawyer, and a cancer bioresearcher, Dr. Brown has had to deal with the constant threat of these complex issues in her life.


The company’s main goal is to provide resources and support for all types of businesses.


Photovoltaics, photosynthesis, biofuels, energy storage, combustion, catalysis, carbon capture/sequestration.


Materials Sciences


Materials that are correlated, nanomaterials, magnetism and polymers, semiconductors and water, advanced materials.


This sentence is not a valid fracture, list, or enumerate.


A physicist can perform basic physics in three different parts of the field. They include atomic, molecular, or optical, and the subfields are all determined by how the work is accomplished.


B.4 What are the similarities and differences between applied research and basic research?


Applied research can be defined as a type of research design that attempts to solve problems, provide innovative solutions, and is often undertaken in an effort to transform society.


Applied research is conducted to understand problems and define solutions. Researchers often employ empirical methods in order to provide a solution to a problem.


Applied research is a systematic technique of inquiry used to explore and answer questions. It expands on the findings of pure or basic research by testing it to validate these findings, as well as further inventing solutions through implementation.


Types of Research


There are three types of applied research: evaluation research, development and action research.


Evaluating research


In order to determine how to increase profits, an organisation may apply research and data analysis when tailored to the business. Evaluation research is a type of applied research that analyses existing information about a research subject in order to reach objective research outcomes or reach informed decisions. It’s used mostly in business contexts, such as cutting overhead costs and increasing profits.


I’m interested in research and development.


Since your marketing strategy depends on what your target market needs, it’s important to not only identify their wants and needs, but also their key preferences. With that information in hand, you’ll be able to make informed decisions as you improve or create products specifically targeted toward these needs.


Action Research


Action research is a type of applied research that is set on practical solutions to specific business problems by pointing the business in the right direction. Typically, action research is a process of reflective inquiry that is limited to part-specific contexts and situational in nature.


Applied research is used in business in order to build knowledge and develop product solutions. These strategies help organisations identify the peculiar needs of target markets, which would allow them to create different business strategies that would satisfy those needs.


Contractual research is an effective way to get first-hand information on your target market reactions. This can help you to make informed decisions about marketing and development strategies, which in turn helps your brand.


Applied research can be important for an organization’s workforce. For example, a business may carry out applied research to measure the effectiveness of their recruitment practices or assess the organization’s structure.


In education, applied research is used to test pedagogical practices in order to discover the best teaching and learning methods. It’s also utilized for testing educational policies before implementation, addressing issues associated with teaching paradigms, and the dynamics of classrooms. In short–it helps to create a better experience for students.


Educational applied research is the process of gathering empirical data from primary sources in order to solve problems. This rigorous exploration and analysis can be used to reach valid conclusions.


A research methodology that is applied in education would be used to determine the applicability of educational theory and principles by subjecting hypotheses to experimentation within specific settings. It would also be more utilitarian in that it seeks practical evidence, rather than abstract truth.


I love research that explores our deep history, such as the evolution of early humans. When you find out how our ancestors got here, it’s mind-blowing.


Creative inspiration is vital in the creative process, which is why it’s been so difficult to study. As you see, researchers have been working to overcome challenges with finding the right answer for this elusive problem and our review helped provide the necessary tools for others who are interested in the field of creativity. In this article, we’ll discuss how scientists are finally beginning to crack the code on understanding creative inspiration. First, we’ll address uncertainty surrounding definitions of inspiration. This isn’t an issue if everyone can agree on what kind of thing they’re looking at, so scientists defined inspiration as a “morsel-to-dish” phenomenon that will awaken an individual’s ideas and help realize them into products or plans. They also offer a test they’ve developed called the Inspiration Scale (IS), which one can use to assess traits or states of ‘inspiration’. They then define what inspires differently than what inspire creativity by discussing discriminant validity. Next, researchers discuss preconceptions about whether or not cognitive effort is more important than inspiration (“working out ideas”). They review empirical evidence that both types of effort play important roles in helping people come up with new concepts and solutions (“fires my soul”). Finally, we argue that these


The Definition of Inspirational

The first challenge is that inspiration has no clear definition. There are numerous barriers to neuroscientific investigation. This article will address these limitations and identify opportunities for continued research on inspiration.


If you want to be inspired, you first have to observe a stimulus. One of the key components in the process of being inspired is appreciating the intrinsic value in what one sees or hears. Another aspect that makes up inspiration is having an “aha” moment when an idea pops into your head. Not only can someone look and recall anything that evoked them, but they can also be motivated by it. A motivating quality in inspiration is called approach motivation.


Have you ever been in a story before? If so, you know how exciting it can be. And that’s what these component processes are meant to ideally do across many different manifestations of inspiration. Thrash and Elliot asked participants to produce narratives about either a time when they were inspired or the standard baseline experience (control condition). The inspiration narratives span topics such as becoming animated by a scientific or artistic insight, discovering one’s calling, being influenced by a role model to succeed or live virtuously, realizing that greatness is possible in response to an unexpected success. Despite superficial differences in narrative content, the inspiration stories share the underlying themes of having your eyes opened during an encounter with someone, object, event, or idea (i.e., being inspired “by”).


Creative ideas can be seen as new and better possibilities. Transcendence is the transformation of that vision into something that actually exists in the world. The general characteristic of transcendence for creative activity is creation-the process of transforming an idea into a reality. It follows that one is inspired by their own creative ideas, during moments of insight, which actually motivates them to take action. As with all facets of interpersonal understanding, creative inspiration can take a number of different forms of transmission. Creative ideas are often realized through actualization or transmission (often referred to as “inspiration”), when one’s own thoughts are transformed into a physical product.


We acknowledge that inspiration is not the source of creative ideas. Instead, it’s a motivational response to those ideas. Creativity is an evolutionary process, and inspiration helps us transmit our thoughts from one mind to another, or from person to person. This distinction is critical for at least three reasons: First, claiming creativity comes from inspiration would be misleading in regards to the scientific process, much as attributing creativity to a muse would be an exercise in labeling something mystical. Second, scientists have already developed several scientific constructs and theories for explaining the origins of creative ideas; these include situational, dispositional, self-regulatory, cognitive processes. Third, recognition of someone else’s work as a catalyst for your own creative stream has been shown to increase motivation by increasing feelings of autonomy (#psychology fact)


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